Latest Publications

  • Large-scale, high-density (up to 512 channels) recording of local circuits in behaving animals

    Berényi A, Somogyvári Z, Nagy AJ, Roux L, Long JD, Fujisawa S, Stark E, Leonardo A, Harris TD, Buzsáki G.


    Here we describe a system that allows high channel count recordings from a small volume of neuronal tissue using a lightweight signal multiplexing head-stage that permits free behavior of small rodents. These methods will allow the investigation of circuit operations and behavior-dependent inter-regional interactions for testing hypotheses of neural networks and brain function.

  • Theta Phase Segregation of Input-Specific Gamma Patterns in Entorhinal-Hippocampal Networks.

    Schomburg EW, Fernández-Ruiz A, Mizuseki K, Berényi A, Anastassiou CA, Koch C, Buzsáki G.


    These experiments examined how the CA3 and entorhinal inputs affect the activity in the CA1 network through theta-gamma coupling. It shows that upstream neurons fire coherently with LFP gamma activity in the target dendritic layer. However, gamma coupling of principal cells across regions is rather poor and decreases with gamma frequency. LFP gamma activity in the somatic layer is a combination of passive return currents from the dendrites, feed-forward somatic inhibition and superimposed spikes of synchronously firing neurons

  • Pyramidal cell-interneuron interactions underlie hippocampal ripple oscillations.

    E Stark, L Roux, R Eichler, Y Senzai, S Royer and G Buzsáki.


    The mechanisms by which ripple oscillations contribute to memory consolidation are unclear. Using multisite closed-loop optogenetic manipulations in freely moving mice and rats, complemented with local pharmacological manipulation, we show that temporally precise local interactions between excitatory and inhibitory neurons underlie ripple generation. These findings constrain the mechanism involved in generation and spatial coordination of ripple oscillations.

  • Excitation and Inhibition Compete to Control Spiking during Hippocampal Ripples: Intracellular Study in Behaving Mice.

    English DF, Peyrache A, Stark E, Roux L, Vallentin D, Long MA, Buzsáki G.


    We took the challenge of figuring out how to perform simultaneously extracellular and intracellular data in freely behaving mice. In turn, this innovation allowed us to examine how population activity during sharp wave ripples is reflected by the membrane potential fluctuations of hippocampal pyramidal cells. We uncovered a strong shunting inhibition and demonstrate that spikes are initiated orthodromically due to transient gain of excitation over inhibition.

  • Spatially distributed local fields in the hippocampus encode rat position

    Agarwal G, Stevenson IH, Berényi A, Mizuseki K, Buzsáki G, Sommer FT


    Temporally evolving cell assemblies broadcast their spike outputs to target neurons in the form of EPSPs and IPSPs ('synapsembles'). In this work we demonstrate that the position of the rat in the environment can be reliably 'read out' from a 'demodulated' LFP (representing the activity of these synapsembles) which rides on the carrier theta oscillations in the hippocampus.

RESEARCH GOALS

SEARCH FOR A NEURAL SYNTAX

Today's cognitive science largely follows the tradition of empiricism by looking for correspondences between 'stimuli' in the external world and their responses or 'representations' in the brain. This approach works well (sort of) in primary sensory areas but typically fails when cognitive or emotional mechanisms are to be investigated. The empiricist method is a bit like learning words in a foreign language, i.e., collecting correspondences between a known and a new language. The initial progress is fast. One can get by in a foreign country with just 100 words of vocabulary. However, when it comes to truly understanding a language, one needs to know the grammar, the syntactical rules that allow for the generation of virtually infinite combinations from finite numbers of lexical elements. Syntax allows for the segmentation of information into a temporal progression of discrete elements with ordered and hierarchical relationships (e.g. tempo, punctuation, etc), resulting in congruent interpretation of meaning. We endeavor to study the syntax, and not just the vocabulary, of the brain.

Our working hypothesis is that in brain networks, especially those serving cognitive functions, the packaging and segmentation of neural information is supported by the numerous self-organized rhythms the brain generates. Brain rhythms allow for temporal correlations to occur at multiple time scales which can be mathematically defined. Rhythms and other non-rhythmic 'chunking' patterns can be thought of as 'order parameters' and are often recognized in the local field potentials. These mesoscopic patterns are telltale signs of the grouping and segregation of transient cell assemblies and their evolving sequences.

Brain oscillations form a hierarchical structure: slower oscillations phase-modulate the power of faster rhythms. These mesoscopic temporal structures (i.e., brain oscillations) have been fully preserved throughout mammalian evolution and have constrained both the evolutionary and ontogenetic scaling of brain structures. Some rhythms are region-specific while others are ubiquitous. Oscillations are robust and easily quantifiable phenotypes and various brain systems have unique constellations of oscillations. Twin studies show just how tightly genetic factors control brain rhythms. In some cases, both the genes and mode of inheritance have been determined. Every psychiatric disease is associated with some kind of rhythm problem. Importantly, mice and rats have brain oscillations with the same pharmacological profiles as humans, and therefore serve as important targets for drug discovery. Our actions and perceptions are strongly affected by the constellation of rhythms. For example, rhythms can strongly bias which part of the text you are reading now will be remembered tomorrow.

Work in our lab focuses largely on the generation of these various oscillations, their spatial and temporal relationships, and the role of inhibition in the enforcement of syntactic rules. We monitor large-scale neuronal firing patterns and the local fields they generate in behaving rodents in order to relate the assembly patterns and order parameters to overt and covert behaviors. Perturbation of the various oscillations or the neuronal components that give rise to these rhythms--using closed-loop optogenetics and other methods--is a complementary approach. The main focus of our investigations is the hippocampus and we reach out from this structure to its numerous cortical and subcortical partners.

The advantage of our 'inside-out' approach to brain function is that it is free of philosophical connotations and takes brain mechanisms as independent variables, as opposed to attempts to finding 'correspondences' or 'representations' between subjectively derived categories and boundaries and brain responses. If you are still skeptical of our approach, just ask any practicing psychiatrist how well the boundaries set up by DSM-IV translate to the diseases they treat. We submit that a syntactical approach to brain function is an alternative, and perhaps more effective, strategy

 

 

    Rhythms of the Brain, György Buzsáki

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LAB MEMBERS

 

György Buzsáki, MD, PhD

Principal Investigator
[email]


Eran Stark, MD, PhD

Research Assistant Professor
[email]

Antal Berényi, MD, PhD

Research Assistant Professor
[email]

Lucas Sjulson, MD, PhD

Research Assistant Professor, NYU Department of Psychiatry
[email]

Brendon Watson, MD, PhD

Psyhchiatrist, Research Fellow
[email]

Jennifer Gelinas, MD, PhD, FRCPC

Pediatric Neurologist, Research Fellow
[email]


Adrien Peyrache, PhD

Postdoc
[email]
[website]

John Long, PhD

Postdoc
[email]

Lisa Roux, PhD

Postdoc
[email]

Daniel English, PhD

Postdoc
[email]

Gabrielle Girardeau, PhD

Postdoc
[email]

Dion Khodagholy, PhD

Postdoc
[email]

Andres Grosmark, PhD

Postdoc
[email]

Erik Schomburg, PhD

Postdoc
[email]

Sam McKenzie

Postdoc
[email]

Yuta Senzai

Graduate Student
[email]

Antonio Fernandez Ruiz, MSc

Visiting Graduate Student
[email]

Zifang (Frank) Zhao, BSC

Visiting Graduate Student
[email]

Svenja Kiljan

Visiting Graduate Student
[email]

Ingrid Inema

Masters Student
[email]

Heather McKellar, Phd

Program Coordinator
[email]

ALUMNI

 

Lianne Klaver ( Visiting Graduate Student 2014 - 2014 ) Graduate Student Pennartz Lab, SILS Center for Neuroscience University of Amsterdam Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Jagdish Patel ( Graduate Student 2006 - 2013 ) Postdoctoral Fellow Dima Ringerb Lab NYU New York, NY, USA
Esther Holleman ( Visiting Student 2011 - 2012 ) Graduate Student Battaglia Lab, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands
David Sullivan ( Graduate Student 2004 - 2013 ) Postdoctoral Fellow Eichenbaum Lab Boston University Boston, MA, USA
Peter Petersen ( Visiting Student 2012 - 2013 ) Berg Lab, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology University of Copenhagen Copenhagen, Denmark
Ronny Eichler ( Visiting Student 2012 - 2013 ) Graduate Student Battaglia Lab, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Marie Lacroix ( Visiting Student 2012 - 2013 ) PhD student Team of Karim Benchenane (Memory, Oscillations and Brain states) Laboratory of Neurobiology UMR CNRS-ESPCI Paris , France
Kenji Mizuseki ( Research Assistant Professor 2004 - 2012 ) Senior Scientist Allen Institute for Brain Science [LINK] Seattle, WA , USA
Shigeyoshi Fujisawa ( Postdoctoral Fellow 2005 - 2012 ) Team Leader Lab for Systems Neurophysiology RIKEN Brain Science Institute Wako , Japan
Marie Vandecasteele( Postdoctoral Fellow 2007 - 2010 ) Postdoctoral Fellow Dynamics and Physiopathology of Neuronal Networks College de France Paris , France
Asohan Amarasingham (Postdoctoral Fellow) Assistant Professor City College of New York New York, USA
Kamran Diba( Research Assistant Professor 2004 - 2010 ) Assistant Professor Neural Circuits and Memory Lab University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, USA
Victor Varga( Postdoctoral Fellow 2010) Senior Research Fellow Cerebral Cortex Research Group Institute of Experimental Medicine of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Budapest , Hungary
Simal Ozen( Graduate Student 2004 - 2010 ) Postdoctoral Fellow The de Lecea Lab Stanford University Stanford, CA , USA
Eva Pastalkova( Research Assistant Professor 2004 - 2010 ) Laboratory Head Pastalkova Lab Howard Hughes Medical Institute Ashburn, VA , USA
Sebastien Royer( Postdoctoral Fellow 2004 - 2010 ) Principal Investigator Korea Institute of Science and Technology Seoul , Republic of Korea
John Schulmann( summer student 2009) Graduate student Carmena Lab California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA, USA
Pascale Quilichini( Postdoctoral Fellow 2005 - 2009 ) Postdoctoral Fellow Epilepsy and Cognition Inserm Marseille , France
Dun Mao(Summer Student 2009, Graduate Student 2010 - 2011 ) Graduate Student McNaughton group University of Lethbridge Lethbridge, Alberta , Canada
Sean Montgomery( Graduate Student 2001 - 2009 ) Senior Engineer Sensor Star Inc. New York, NY , USA
Caroline Geisler( Postdoctoral Fellow 2005 - 2009 ) Independent Research Associate Physiology of cortico-hippocampal interaction University of Tuebingen Tuebingen , Germany
Anton Sirota( Graduate Student, Postdoctoral Fellow 2001 - 2009 ) Assistant Professor Physiology of cortico-hippocampal interaction University of Tuebingen Tuebingen , Germany
David Robbe( Postdoctoral Fellow 2003 - 2008 ) Assistant Professor Robbe Lab (Neurophysiology of Basal Ganglia and Regulation by Cannabinoids) Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques, University of Barcelona Barcelona , Spain
Julien Chuquet( Postdoctoral Fellow 2007 - 2008 ) Associate Professor Lab U982 University of Rouen Rouen , France
Tomoyuki Furuyashiki( visiting postdoc 2007) Assistent Professor Cell Pharmacology Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University Kyoto , Japan
Dirk Isbrandt( Visiting Scientist 2005 - 2006 ) Professor Isbrandt Lab University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf (UKE) Hamburg , Germany
Lynn Hazan( Software Engineer 2002 - 2005 ) Researcher Engineer Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE) CEA Gif-sur-Yvette , France
Yoshikazu Isomura( Postdoctoral Fellow 2003 - 2005 ) Laboratory Head Neural Circuit Theory RIKEN Brain Science Institute Wako , Japan
Michael Repucci( Postdoctoral Fellow 2004 - 2005 ) Researcher/System Lead NeuroMatters, LLC New York, NY , USA
Derek Buhl( Graduate Student 2001 - 2004 ) Postdoctoral-Fellow Tonegawa Lab Massachusetts Inst. of Technology Cambridge, MA , USA
Michael Zugaro( Postdoctoral Fellow 2001 - 2004 ) Laboratory Head Brain Rhythms and Neural Coding of Memory College de France Paris , France
Hajime Hirase( Postdoctoral Fellow 1998 - 2004 ) Laboratory Head Neuronal Circuit Mechanisms RIKEN Brain Science Institute Wako , Japan
Roustem Khazipov( Visiting Scholar 2004 - 2004 ) Graduate Student Chemla Lab University of Illinois Urbana, Il , USA
Susumu Takahashi( Visiting Scholar 2004 - 2004 ) Principal Investigator, Assistant Professor Takahashi group University of Southern California Los Angeles, CA , USA
Kenneth Harris( Postdoctoral Fellow 1999 - 2003 ) Professor or Neurotechnology, Principal Investigator Imperial College London , UK
Peter Bartho( Postdoctoral Fellow 2002 - 2004 ) MD Hungarian Academy of Sciences Budapest , Hungary
Lénaic Monconduit( Postdoctoral Scholar 2002 - 2003 ) University of Clermont-Ferrand Clermont-Ferrand , France
George Dragoi( Graduate Student, Postdoctoral Fellow 1996 - 2003 ) Research Scientist Tonegawa Lab Massachusetts Inst. of Technology Cambridge, MA , USA
Michele Pignatelli( Postdoctoral Scholar 2002) Research Scientist University of Naples II Naples , Italy
Darrell Henze( Postdoctoral Fellow 1998 - 2002 ) Senior Research Fellow Merck Research Laboratories West Point, PA , USA
Jozsef Csicsvari( Graduate Student, Postdoctoral Fellow, Research Associate 1994 - 2003 ) Professor, Principal Investigator Csicsvari Group Institute of Science and Technology Austria Klosterneuburg , Austria
Lucia Wittner( Postdoctoral Scholar 2001 - 2002 ) Research Scientist Institute of Experimental Medicine of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Budapest , Hungary
Thomas Klausberger( Postdoctoral Fellow 2001) Professor, Honor Senior Scientist, Group Leader University of Oxford Oxford , UK
Edit Papp( Postdoctoral Scholar 1997 - 1998 ) Research Scientist Institute of Experimental Medicine of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Budapest , Hungary
Zoltan Nadasdy( - ) Research Scientist Human Brain Stimulation and Electrophysiology Lab Seton Brain and Spine Institute, University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX , USA
Marie Pollard( Visiting Student 2000) Postdoctorate Janssen Pharmaceutica Beerse , Belgium
Lisa Marshall( postdoctoral fellow 1999 - 2000 ) Professor, Scientific Assistant, Associate Director University of Luebeck Luebeck , Germany
Xavier Leinegkugel( postdoctoral fellow 1997 - 1999 ) Staff Scientist INSERM, Universit de Paris Paris , France
Boldizsár Czéh( Research Associate 1999 ) Research Scientist Moleculair Neurobiology Max-Planck Institute Munich , Germany
Michaele Migliori( Visiting Scholar 1998 - 1998 ) Professor University of Palermo Palmero , Italy
Andras Lorincz( Visiting Scholar 1997) Professor Institute of Experimental Medicine of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Budapest , Hungary
Charles King( Postdoctoral Scholar 1997 - 1999 ) Research Associate University College London London , UK
András Czurkó( Research Associate 1996 - 1998 ) Research Assistant Professor University of Bristol Bristol , UK
Oleg Godukhin( Research Fellow 1997 - 1997 ) Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics of the Russian Academy of Sciences Pushchino , Russia
Markku Penttonen( Postoctoral Fellow 1996 - 1998 ) Adjunct Professor, Researcher University of Jyväskylä Jyväskylä , Finland
Laszlo Acsady( Postdoctoral Scholar 1996 - 1997 ) Principal Investigator Institute of Experimental Medicine of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Budapest , Hungary
Anita Kamondi( Research Associate 1996 - 1997 ) Professor, Head of Neurology Department Semmelweis Medical School Budapest , Hungary
Xiao-Jing Wang( Visiting Scholar 1999) Professor Computational Laboratory of Cortical Dynamics Yale University New Haven, CT , USA
Attila Sik( Postdoctoral Scholar 1994 - 1996 ) Professor of Cellular Neuroscience Laboratory of cortical and hippocampal network research University of Birmingham Birmingham , UK
Maan-Gee Lee( Postdoctoral Fellow 1993 - 1994 ) Professor Kyungpook National University Daegu , South Korea
Arne Ylinen( Postoctoral Fellow 1992 - 1994) Associate Professor University of Kuopio Kuopio , Finland
Bernat Kocsis( Visiting Scholar 1993 ) Associate Professor of Psychiatry Sleep Medicine Harvard Medical School Cambridge, MA , USA
Lajos Vereczkei( Visiting Professor 1994 ) Professor University of Pecs Pecs , Hungary
Anatol Bragin( Postdoctoral Fellow 1992 - 1997 ) Proffessional Research Neurologist, Associate Professor in Residence UCLA School of Medicine Los Angeles, CA , USA
James Chrobak( Postdoctoral Fellow 1991 - 1996 ) Associate Professor Behavioral Neuroscience University of Conneticut Storrs, CT , USA

 

GROUP PHOTOS

2014

First row, from left to right: Yuta Senzai, Dion Khodagholy, Brendon Watson

Second row, from left to right: Lisa Roux, Jonathan Platkiewicz, Erik Schomburg, David Tingley, Antal Berényi, John Long, Palmer Green, Svenia Kiljan, Ingrid Inema, Daniel English, Gyuri Buzsáki, Andres Grosmark, Gabrielle Girardeau, Frank Zifang Zhao, Azahara Oliva González, Sam McKenzie, Adrien Peyrache, Jennifer Gelinas, Antonio Fernández-Ruiz, Eran Stark

Missing: Luke Sjulson

 

2014

Frank Zifang Zhao, Jennifer Gelinas, Daniel English, Lisa Roux, Ingrid Inema, Nicolas Avrutin, John Long, Andres Grosmark, Adrien Peyrache, Gyuri Buzsáki, Svenja Kiljan, Erik Schomburg, Horacio Rotstein (back row), Yuta Senzai (back row), Gabrielle Girardeau, Sam McKenzie, Francesco Battaglia (visiting guest), Dion Khodagholy, Nicolas Chenouard (guest), Palmer Greene

 

2012

David Sullivan, Shigeyoshi Fujisawa, Rony Eichler, Lisa Roux, Antal Berényi, Brendon Watson, John Long, Andres Grosmark, György Buzsáki, Zoltán Somogyvári, Celina Caban-Nieves, Adrien Peyrache, Thomas Allen, Eran Stark, Jagdish Patel, Marie LaCroix, Esther Holleman.

Missing: Mariano Belluscio, Kenji Mizuseki, Gautam Agarwal

 

2009 - Alumni Reunion

 

2008

Jagdish Patel, Shigeyoshi Fujisawa, Kamaran Diba, Anton Sirota, György Buzsáki, Asohan Amarasingham, Sean Montgomery, Kenji Mizuseki, Simal Ozen, Mariano Belluscio, Marie Vandecasteele, Andres Grosmark, Caroline Geisler , Pascale Quillicini, David Sullivan, Eva Pastalkova

 

2006

 

2006

Celina Caban-Nieves, Kamaran Diba, Eva Pastalkova , Caroline Geisler , Asohan Amarasingham, Jagdish Patel, Kenji Mizuseki, Simal Ozen, György Buzsáki, David Sullivan, Anton Sirota, David Robbe, Sebastien Royer, Shigeyoshi Fujisawa, Sean Montgomery, Pascale Quillicini

 

2005

Eva Pastalkova , Sean Montgomery, György Buzsáki, Pavel E. Rueda-Orozco, Anton Sirota, Simal Ozen, Yoshikazu Isomura, David Robbe, Kenji Mizuseki, Dirk Isbrandt, Sebastien Royer, Stephan Marguet, Shazu Sakata

 

2002

 

2000

Front row: Hajime Hirase, Erzsebet Borok, Gyorgy Buzsaki, Darrell Henze, Lisa Marshall.

Back row: Derek Buhl, Xavier Leinekugel, Ken Harris, Jozsef Csiicsvari.

Missing: Zoltan Nadasdy, Andras Czurko , George Dragoi

 

1995

 

1994

Man-Gee Lee, Adam Kandel, Zoltan Nadasdy, Daniel Carpi, Aarne Ylinen, Markku Penttonen, Attila Sik, György Buzsáki, Melissa Hsu

 

PEER-REVIEWED PUBLICATIONS

 

 

Excitation and Inhibition Compete to Control Spiking during Hippocampal Ripples: Intracellular Study in Behaving Mice.
English DF. , Peyrache A. , Stark E. , Roux L. , Vallentin D. , Long MA. , Buzsáki G. J Neurosci. 2014 Dec; 34(49):16509-17 [PDF]

Theta Phase Segregation of Input-Specific Gamma Patterns in Entorhinal-Hippocampal Networks.
Schomburg EW. , Fernández-Ruiz A. , Mizuseki K. , Berényi A. , Anastassiou CA. , Koch C. , Buzsáki G. Neuron. 2014 Oct; 84(2):470-85 [PDF] [Supp] [Commentary]

Tasks for inhibitory interneurons in intact brain circuits.
Roux L. , Buzsáki G. Neuropharmacology. 2014 Sep; 88C:10-23 [PDF]

Optogenetic activation of septal cholinergic neurons suppresses sharp wave ripples and enhances theta oscillations in the hippocampus.
Vandecasteele M. , Varga V. , Berényi A. , Papp E. , Barthó P. , Venance L. , Freund TF. , Buzsáki G. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Sep; 111(37):13535-40 [PDF] [Supp]

Neurosharing: large-scale data sets (spike, LFP) recorded from the hippocampal-entorhinal system in behaving rats.
Mizuseki K. , Diba K. , Pastalkova E. , Teeters J. , Sirota A. , Buzsáki G. F1000Res. 2014 Apr; 3:98 [PDF]

Pyramidal cell-interneuron interactions underlie hippocampal ripple oscillations
Stark E. , Roux L. , Eichler R. , Senzai Y. , Royer S. , Buzsáki G. Neuron. 2014 Jul; 83(2):467-80 [PDF] [Supp]

Spatially distributed local fields in the hippocampus encode rat position
Agarwal G. , Stevenson IH. , Berényi A. , Mizuseki K. , Buzsáki G. , Sommer FT. Science. 2014 May; 344(6184):626-30 [PDF] [Supp] [Movie 1] [Movie 2]

The log-dynamic brain: how skewed distributions affect network operations
Buzsáki G. , Mizuseki K. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2014 Apr; 15(4):264-78 [PDF]

In vivo optogenetic identification and manipulation of GABAergic interneuron subtypes
Roux L. , Stark E. , Sjulson L. , Buzsáki G. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2014 Jun; 26:88-95 [PDF]

Comparison of sleep spindles and theta oscillations in the hippocampus
Sullivan D. , Mizuseki K. , Sorgi A. , Buzsáki G. , J Neurosci. 2014 Jan; 34(2):662-74 [PDF]

Local generation and propagation of ripples along the septotemporal axis of the hippocampus
Patel J. , Schomburg EW. , Berényi A. , Fujisawa S. , Buzsáki G. J Neurosci. 2013 Oct; 33(43):17029-17041 [PDF]

Scaling brain size, keeping timing: evolutionary preservation of brain rhythms
Buzsáki G. , Logothetis N. , Singer W. Neuron 2013 Oct; 80(3):751-764 [PDF] [Supp]

Inhibition-induced theta resonance in cortical circuits
Stark E. , Eichler R. , Roux L. , Fujisawa S. , Rotstein HG. , Buzsáki G. Neuron 2013 Dec; 80(5):1263-1276 [PDF] [Supp]

Large-scale, high-density (up to 512 channels) recording of local circuits in behaving animals
Berényi A. , Somogyvári Z. , Nagy AJ. , Roux L. , Long JD. , Fujisawa S. , Stark E. , Leonardo A. , Harris TD. , Buzsáki G. J Neurophysiol. 2013 Dec; [PDF] [Supp]

Theta oscillations decrease spike synchrony in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex
Mizuseki K. , Buzsáki G. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2013 Dec; 369(1635):20120530 [PDF] [Supp]

An implantable neural probe with monolithically integrated dielectric waveguide and recording electrodes for optogenetics applications
Wu F. , Stark E. , Im M. , Cho IJ. , Yoon ES. , Buzsáki G. , Wise KD. , Yoon E. J Neural Eng. 2013 Aug; 10(5):056012 [Link]

Memory, navigation and theta rhythm in the hippocampal-entorhinal system
Buzsáki G. , Moser EI. Nat Neurosci. 2013 Jan; 16(2):130-8 [PDF]

A BOLD statement about the hippocampal-neocortical dialogue
Buzsáki G. , Peyrache A. Trends Cogn Sci. 2013 Jan 4; [PDF]

Striatal GABAergic and cortical glutamatergic neurons mediate contrasting effects of cannabinoids on cortical network synchrony
Sales-Carbonell C. , Rueda-Orozco PE. , Soria-Gómez E. , Buzsáki G. , Marsicano G. , Robbe D. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2013 Jan 8; 110 (2):719-24 [PDF] [SUPP]

REM sleep reorganizes hippocampal excitability
Grosmark AD. , Mizuseki K. , Pastalkova E. , Diba K. , Buzsáki G. Neuron 2012 Sep 20; 75 (6):1001-7 [PDF] [SUPP]

The spiking component of oscillatory extracellular potentials in the rat hippocampus
Schomburg EW. , Anastassiou CA. , Buzsáki G. , Koch C. J Neurosci. 2012 Aug 22; 32 (34):11798-811 [PDF]

Traveling theta waves along the entire septotemporal axis of the hippocampus
Patel J. , Fujisawa S. , Berényi A. , Royer S. , Buzsáki G. Neuron 2012 Aug 9; 75 (3):410-7 [PDF] [SUPP]

Closed-loop control of epilepsy by transcranial electrical stimulation
Berényi A. , Belluscio M. , Mao D., Buzsáki G. Science. 2012 Aug 10; 337 (6095):735-7 [PDF] [SUPP]

Quantifying circular-linear associations: Hippocampal phase precession
Kempter R. , Leibold C. , Buzsáki G., Diba K, Schmidt R. J Neurosci Methods. 2012 May 30; 207 (1):113-24 [PDF]

The origin of extracellular fields and currents - EEG, ECoG, LFP and spikes.
Buzsáki G, Anastassiou C.A. , Koch C. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2012 May 18; 13 (6):407-20 [PDF]

High frequency oscillations in the intact brain.
Buzsáki G. , Silva F.L. Prog Neurobiol. 2012 Sep; 98 (3):241-9 [PDF]

Diode-probes for spatiotemporal optical control of multiple neurons in freely-moving animals
Stark E, Koos T., Buzsáki G. Journal of Neurophysiology 2012 Jul; 108 (1):349-63 [PDF]

Mechanisms of gamma oscillations.
Buzsáki G., Wang X-J. Annual Review of Neuroscience 2012; 35:203-25 [PDF] [SUPP]

Large-scale Recording of Neurons by Movable Silicon Probes in Behaving Rodents
VandeCasteele M., S M, Royer S, Belluscio M, Berényi A, Diba K, Fujisawa S, Grosmark A , Mao D, Mizuseki K, Patel J, Stark E, Sullivan D, Watson B, Buzsáki G. Jove2012 March [LINK TO VIDEO]

Control of timing, rate and bursts of hippocampal place cells by dendritic and somatic inhibition.
Royer S, Zemelman BV, Losonczy A, Kim J, Chance F, Magee JC, Buzsáki G. Nat Neurosci2012 Mar 25; 15(5):769-75 [PDF]

Activity dynamics and behavioral correlates of CA3 and CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons.
Mizuseki K, Royer S, Diba K, Buzsáki G. Hippocampus 2012 Feb 27 [PDF]

120 years of hippocampal Schaffer collaterals.
Szirmai I, Buzsáki G, Kamondi A. Hippocampus 2012 Jan 23 [PDF]

Cross-Frequency Phase-Phase Coupling between Theta and Gamma Oscillations in the Hippocampus.
Belluscio MA, Mizuseki K, Schmidt R, Kempter R, Buzsáki G. J Neurosci 2012 Jan 11; 32 (2):423-35 [PDF]

GABAergic circuits mediate the reinforcement-related signals of striatal cholinergic interneurons.
English DF, Ibanez-Sandoval O, Stark E, Tecuapetla F, Buzsáki G, Deisseroth K, Tepper JM, Koos T. Nat Neurosci 2011 Dec 11; 15 (1):123-30 [PDF] [SUPP]

Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells form functionally distinct sublayers.
Mizuseki K, Diba K, Pastalkova E, Buzsáki G. Nat Neurosci 2011 Aug 7; 14 (9):1174-81
[PDF] [SUPP]

Relationships between hippocampal sharp waves, ripples, and fast gamma oscillation: influence of dentate and entorhinal cortical activity.
Sullivan D, Csicsvari J, Mizuseki K, Montgomery S, Diba K, Buzsáki G. J Neurosci 2011 Jun 8; 31 (23):8605-16
[PDF]

Cell assembly sequences arising from spike threshold adaptation keep track of time in the hippocampus.
Itskov V, Curto C, Pastalkova E, Buzsáki G. J Neurosci 2011 Feb 23; 31 (8):2828-34
[PDF] [SUPP] [MP4]

Axonal morphometry of hippocampal pyramidal neurons semi-automatically reconstructed after in vivo labeling in different CA3 locations.
Ropireddy D, Scorcioni R, Lasher B, Buzsáki G, Ascoli GA. Brain Struct Funct 2011 Mar; 216 (1):1-15
[PDF]

Predominant enhancement of glucose uptake in astrocytes versus neurons during activation of the somatosensory cortex.
Chuquet J, Quilichini P, Nimchinsky EA, Buzsáki G. J Neurosci 2010 Nov 10; 30 (45):15298-303
[PDF]

Neural syntax: cell assemblies, synapsembles, and readers.
Buzsáki G, Neuron 2010 Nov 4; 68 (3):362-85
[PDF] [SUPP]

Transcranial electric stimulation entrains cortical neuronal populations in rats.
Ozen S, Sirota A, Belluscio MA, Anastassiou CA, Stark E, Koch C, Buzsáki G. J Neurosci 2010 Aug 25; 30 (34):11476-85
[PDF] [SUPP]

Intrinsic circuit organization and theta-gamma oscillation dynamics in the entorhinal cortex of the rat.
Quilichini P, Sirota A, Buzsáki G. J Neurosci 2010 Aug 18; 30 (33):11128-42
[PDF] [SUPP]

Multi-array silicon probes with integrated optical fibers: light-assisted perturbation and recording of local neural circuits in the behaving animal.
Royer S, Zemelman BV, Barbic M, Losonczy A, Buzsáki G, Magee JC. Eur J Neurosci 2010 Jun; 31 (12):2279-91
[PDF]

Temporal delays among place cells determine the frequency of population theta oscillations in the hippocampus.
Geisler C, Diba K, Pastalkova E, Mizuseki K, Royer S, Buzsáki G. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010 Apr 27; 107 (17):7957-62
[PDF] [SUPP]

The effect of spatially inhomogeneous extracellular electric fields on neurons.
Anastassiou CA, Montgomery SM, Barahona M, Buzsáki G, Koch C. J Neurosci 2010 Feb 3; 30 (5):1925-36
[PDF] [SUPP]

Distinct representations and theta dynamics in dorsal and ventral hippocampus.
Royer S, Sirota A, Patel J, Buzsáki G. J Neurosci 2010 Feb 3; 30 (5):1777-87
[PDF] [SUPP] [COMMENTARY]

Theta oscillations provide temporal windows for local circuit computation in the entorhinal-hippocampal loop.
Mizuseki K, Sirota A, Pastalkova E, Buzsáki G. Neuron 2009 Oct 29; 64 (2):267-80\
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Single-trial phase precession in the hippocampus.
Schmidt R, Diba K, Leibold C, Schmitz D, Buzsáki G, Kempter R. J Neurosci 2009 Oct 21; 29 (42):13232-41
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Selective suppression of hippocampal ripples impairs spatial memory.
Girardeau G, Benchenane K, Wiener SI, Buzsáki G, Zugaro MB. Nat Neurosci 2009 Oct; 12 (10):1222-3
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Behavior-dependent coordination of multiple theta dipoles in the hippocampus.
Montgomery SM, Betancur MI, Buzsáki G. J Neurosci 2009 Feb 4; 29 (5):1381-94
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Entrainment of neocortical neurons and gamma oscillations by the hippocampal theta rhythm.
Sirota A, Montgomery S, Fujisawa S, Isomura Y, Zugaro M, Buzsáki G. Neuron 2008 Nov 26; 60 (4):683-97
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Advanced neurotechnologies for chronic neural interfaces: new horizons and clinical opportunities.
Kipke DR, Shain W, Buzsáki G, Fetz E, Henderson JM, Hetke JF, Schalk G. J Neurosci 2008 Nov 12; 28 (46):11830-8
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Internally generated cell assembly sequences in the rat hippocampus.
Pastalkova E, Itskov V, Amarasingham A, Buzsáki G. Science 2008 Sep 5; 321 (5894):1322-7
[PDF] [COMMENTARY] [PDF]

Theta and gamma coordination of hippocampal networks during waking and rapid eye movement sleep.
Montgomery SM, Sirota A, Buzsáki G. J Neurosci 2008 Jun 25; 28 (26):6731-41
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Petilla terminology: nomenclature of features of GABAergic interneurons of the cerebral cortex.
Ascoli GA, Alonso-Nanclares L, Anderson SA, Barrionuevo G, Benavides-Piccione R, Burkhalter A, Buzsáki G, Cauli B, Defelipe J, Fairén A, Feldmeyer D, Fishell G, Fregnac Y, Freund TF, Gardner D, Gardner EP, Goldberg JH, Helmstaedter M, Hestrin S, Karube F, Kisvárday ZF, Lambolez B, Lewis DA, Marin O, Markram H, Muñoz A, Packer A, Petersen CC, Rockland KS, Rossier J, Rudy B, Somogyi P, Staiger JF, Tamas G, Thomson AM, Toledo-Rodriguez M, Wang Y, West DC, Yuste R. Nat Rev Neurosci 2008 Jul; 9 (7):557-68

A neural coding scheme formed by the combined function of gamma and theta oscillations.
Lisman J, Buzsáki G. Schizophr Bull 2008 Sep; 34 (5):974-80

Theta-mediated dynamics of spatial information in hippocampus.
Itskov V, Pastalkova E, Mizuseki K, Buzsaki G, Harris KD. J Neurosci 2008 Jun 4; 28 (23):5959-64
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Behavior-dependent short-term assembly dynamics in the medial prefrontal cortex.
Fujisawa S, Amarasingham A, Harrison MT, Buzsáki G. Nat Neurosci 2008 Jul; 11 (7):823-33
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Interaction between neocortical and hippocampal networks via slow oscillations.
Sirota A, Buzsáki G. Thalamus Relat Syst 2005 Dec; 3 (4):245-259
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Inhibition and brain work.
Buzsáki G, Kaila K, Raichle M. Neuron 2007 Dec 6; 56 (5):771-83
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Forward and reverse hippocampal place-cell sequences during ripples.
Diba K, Buzsáki G. Nat Neurosci 2007 Oct; 10 (10):1241-2
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Hilar mossy cells: functional identification and activity in vivo.
Henze DA, Buzsáki G. Prog Brain Res 2007; 163 199-216
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Gamma oscillations dynamically couple hippocampal CA3 and CA1 regions during memory task performance.
Montgomery SM, Buzsáki G. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007 Sep 4; 104 (36):14495-500
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Three-dimensional reconstruction of the axon arbor of a CA3 pyramidal cell recorded and filled in vivo.
Wittner L, Henze DA, Záborszky L, Buzsáki G. Brain Struct Funct 2007 Jul; 212 (1):75-83
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Neuronal diversity in GABAergic long-range projections from the hippocampus.
Jinno S, Klausberger T, Marton LF, Dalezios Y, Roberts JD, Fuentealba P, Bushong EA, Henze D, Buzsáki G, Somogyi P. J Neurosci 2007 Aug 15; 27 (33):8790-804
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Hippocampal place cell assemblies are speed-controlled oscillators.
Geisler C, Robbe D, Zugaro M, Sirota A, Buzsáki G. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007 May 8; 104 (19):8149-54
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The structure of consciousness.
Buzsáki G, Nature 2007 Mar 15; 446 (7133):267

How can drug discovery for psychiatric disorders be improved?
Agid Y, Buzsáki G, Diamond DM, Frackowiak R, Giedd J, Girault JA, Grace A, Lambert JJ, Manji H, Mayberg H, Popoli M, Prochiantz A, Richter-Levin G, Somogyi P, Spedding M, Svenningsson P, Weinberger D. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2007 Mar; 6 (3):189-201

Cortical control of zona incerta.
Barthó P, Slézia A, Varga V, Bokor H, Pinault D, Buzsáki G, Acsády L. J Neurosci 2007 Feb 14; 27 (7):1670-81

Sequential structure of neocortical spontaneous activity in vivo.
Luczak A, Barthó P, Marguet SL, Buzsáki G, Harris KD. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007 Jan 2; 104 (1):347-52
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Integration and segregation of activity in entorhinal-hippocampal subregions by neocortical slow oscillations.
Isomura Y, Sirota A, Ozen S, Montgomery S, Mizuseki K, Henze DA, Buzsáki G. Neuron 2006 Dec 7; 52 (5):871-82
[PDF] [Commentary]

Cannabinoids reveal importance of spike timing coordination in hippocampal function.
Robbe D, Montgomery SM, Thome A, Rueda-Orozco PE, McNaughton BL, Buzsaki G. Nat Neurosci 2006 Dec; 9 (12):1526-33
[PDF] [Commentary]

Morphology and synaptic input of substance P receptor-immunoreactive interneurons in control and epileptic human hippocampus.
Tóth K, Wittner L, Urbán Z, Doyle WK, Buzsáki G, Shigemoto R, Freund TF, Maglóczky Z. Neuroscience 2007 Jan 19; 144 (2):495-508

Hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells selectively innervate aspiny interneurons.
Wittner L, Henze DA, Záborszky L, Buzsáki G. Eur J Neurosci 2006 Sep; 24 (5):1286-98

Populations of hippocampal inhibitory neurons express different levels of cytochrome c.
Gulyás AI, Buzsáki G, Freund TF, Hirase H. Eur J Neurosci 2006 May; 23 (10):2581-94

Temporal encoding of place sequences by hippocampal cell assemblies.
Dragoi G, Buzsáki G. Neuron 2006 Apr 6; 50 (1):145-57
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Klusters, NeuroScope, NDManager: a free software suite for neurophysiological data processing and visualization.
Hazan L, Zugaro M, Buzsáki G. J Neurosci Methods 2006 Sep 15; 155 (2):207-16
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On the origin of the extracellular action potential waveform: A modeling study.
Gold C, Henze DA, Koch C, Buzsáki G. J Neurophysiol 2006 May; 95 (5):3113-28

Synaptic plasticity and self-organization in the hippocampus.
Buzsáki G, Chrobak JJ. Nat Neurosci 2005 Nov; 8 (11):1418-20

Neuroscience: neurons and navigation.
Buzsáki G, Nature 2005 Aug 11; 436 (7052):781-2

Band-tunable and multiplexed integrated circuits for simultaneous recording and stimulation with microelectrode arrays.
Olsson RH 3rd, Buhl DL, Sirota AM, Buzsaki G, Wise KD. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2005 Jul; 52 (7):1303-11
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Neuroscience. Similar is different in hippocampal networks.
Buzsáki G, Science 2005 Jul 22; 309 (5734):568-9

Spike phase precession persists after transient intrahippocampal perturbation.
Zugaro MB, Monconduit L, Buzsáki G. Nat Neurosci 2005 Jan; 8 (1):67-71
Nature Neuroscience, 8(1):67-71, 2005. [PDF]

Early motor activity drives spindle bursts in the developing somatosensory cortex.
Khazipov R, Sirota A, Leinekugel X, Holmes GL, Ben-Ari Y, Buzsáki G. Nature 2004 Dec 9; 432 (7018):758-61
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A behavioral role for dendritic integration: HCN1 channels constrain spatial memory and plasticity at inputs to distal dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons.
Nolan MF, Malleret G, Dudman JT, Buhl DL, Santoro B, Gibbs E, Vronskaya S, Buzsáki G, Siegelbaum SA, Kandel ER, Morozov A. Cell 2004 Nov 24; 119 (5):719-32
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Capillary level imaging of local cerebral blood flow in bicuculline-induced epileptic foci.
Hirase H, Creso J, Buzsáki G. Neuroscience 2004; 128 (1):209-16
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Neuronal oscillations in cortical networks.
Buzsáki G, Draguhn A. Science 2004 Jun 25; 304 (5679):1926-9
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Large-scale recording of neuronal ensembles.
Buzsáki G, Nat Neurosci 2004 May; 7 (5):446-51
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Calcium dynamics of cortical astrocytic networks in vivo.
Hirase H, Qian L, Barthó P, Buzsáki G. PLoS Biol 2004 Apr; 2 (4):E96
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Characterization of neocortical principal cells and interneurons by network interactions and extracellular features.
Barthó P, Hirase H, Monconduit L, Zugaro M, Harris KD, Buzsáki G. J Neurophysiol 2004 Jul; 92 (1):600-8
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Interneuron Diversity series: Circuit complexity and axon wiring economy of cortical interneurons.
Buzsáki G, Geisler C, Henze DA, Wang XJ. Trends Neurosci 2004 Apr; 27 (4):186-93
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Two-photon imaging of brain pericytes in vivo using dextran-conjugated dyes.
Hirase H, Creso J, Singleton M, Barthó P, Buzsáki G. Glia 2004 Apr 1; 46 (1):95-100
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Place representation within hippocampal networks is modified by long-term potentiation.
Dragoi G, Harris KD, Buzsáki G. Neuron 2003 Aug 28; 39 (5):843-53
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Massively parallel recording of unit and local field potentials with silicon-based electrodes.
Csicsvari J, Henze DA, Jamieson B, Harris KD, Sirota A, Barthó P, Wise KD, Buzsáki G. J Neurophysiol 2003 Aug; 90 (2):1314-23
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Organization of cell assemblies in the hippocampus.
Harris KD, Csicsvari J, Hirase H, Dragoi G, Buzsáki G. Nature 2003 Jul 31; 424 (6948):552-6
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Brain-state- and cell-type-specific firing of hippocampal interneurons in vivo.
Klausberger T, Magill PJ, Márton LF, Roberts JD, Cobden PM, Buzsáki G, Somogyi P. Nature 2003 Feb 20; 421 (6925):844-8
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Communication between neocortex and hippocampus during sleep in rodents.
Sirota A, Csicsvari J, Buhl D, Buzsáki G. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003 Feb 18; 100 (4):2065-9
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Selective impairment of hippocampal gamma oscillations in connexin-36 knock-out mouse in vivo.
Buhl DL, Harris KD, Hormuzdi SG, Monyer H, Buzsáki G. J Neurosci 2003 Feb 1; 23 (3):1013-8
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Mechanisms of gamma oscillations in the hippocampus of the behaving rat.
Csicsvari J, Jamieson B, Wise KD, Buzsáki G. Neuron 2003 Jan 23; 37 (2):311-22
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Hippocampal network patterns of activity in the mouse.
Buzsáki G, Buhl DL, Harris KD, Csicsvari J, Czéh B, Morozov A. Neuroscience 2003; 116 (1):201-11
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Homeostatic maintenance of neuronal excitability by burst discharges in vivo.
Buzsáki G, Csicsvari J, Dragoi G, Harris K, Henze D, Hirase H. Cereb Cortex 2002 Sep; 12 (9):893-9
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Single granule cells reliably discharge targets in the hippocampal CA3 network in vivo.
Henze DA, Wittner L, Buzsáki G. Nat Neurosci 2002 Aug; 5 (8):790-5
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Spike train dynamics predicts theta-related phase precession in hippocampal pyramidal cells.
Harris KD, Henze DA, Hirase H, Leinekugel X, Dragoi G, Czurkó A, Buzsáki G. Nature 2002 Jun 13; 417 (6890):738-41
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Correlated bursts of activity in the neonatal hippocampus in vivo.
Leinekugel X, Khazipov R, Cannon R, Hirase H, Ben-Ari Y, Buzsáki G. Science 2002 Jun 14; 296 (5575):2049-52
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Theta oscillations in the hippocampus.
Buzsáki G, Neuron 2002 Jan 31; 33 (3):325-40
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Hippocampal pyramidal cell-interneuron spike transmission is frequency dependent and responsible for place modulation of interneuron discharge.
Marshall L, Henze DA, Hirase H, Leinekugel X, Dragoi G, Buzsáki G. J Neurosci 2002 Jan 15; 22 (2):RC197

Hippocampal GABAergic interneurons: a physiological perspective.
Buzsáki G, Neurochem Res 2001 Sep; 26 (8-9):899-905

Temporal interaction between single spikes and complex spike bursts in hippocampal pyramidal cells.
Harris KD, Hirase H, Leinekugel X, Henze DA, Buzsáki G. Neuron 2001 Oct 11; 32 (1):141-9
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Electrical wiring of the oscillating brain.
Buzsáki G, Neuron 2001 Aug 16; 31 (3):342-4

Firing rates of hippocampal neurons are preserved during subsequent sleep episodes and modified by novel awake experience.
Hirase H, Leinekugel X, Czurkó A, Csicsvari J, Buzsáki G. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2001 Jul 31; 98 (16):9386-90

Behavior-dependent states of the hippocampal network affect functional clustering of neurons.
Hirase H, Leinekugel X, Csicsvari J, Czurkó A, Buzsáki G. J Neurosci 2001 May 15; 21 (10):RC145

The apical shaft of CA1 pyramidal cells is under GABAergic interneuronal control.
Papp E, Leinekugel X, Henze DA, Lee J, Buzsáki G. Neuroscience 2001; 102 (4):715-21
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The application of printed circuit board technology for fabrication of multi-channel micro-drives.
Szabó I, Czurkó A, Csicsvari J, Hirase H, Leinekugel X, Buzsáki G. J Neurosci Methods 2001 Jan 30; 105 (1):105-10
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Ensemble patterns of hippocampal CA3-CA1 neurons during sharp wave-associated population events.
Csicsvari J, Hirase H, Mamiya A, Buzsáki G. Neuron 2000 Nov; 28 (2):585-94

Unusual target selectivity of perisomatic inhibitory cells in the hilar region of the rat hippocampus.
Acsády L, Katona I, Martínez-Guijarro FJ, Buzsáki G, Freund TF. J Neurosci 2000 Sep 15; 20 (18):6907-19
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Physiological patterns in the hippocampo-entorhinal cortex system.
Chrobak JJ, Lörincz A, Buzsáki G. Hippocampus 2000; 10 (4):457-65
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Accuracy of tetrode spike separation as determined by simultaneous intracellular and extracellular measurements.
Harris KD, Henze DA, Csicsvari J, Hirase H, Buzsáki G. J Neurophysiol 2000 Jul; 84 (1):401-14
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Intracellular features predicted by extracellular recordings in the hippocampus in vivo.
Henze DA, Borhegyi Z, Csicsvari J, Mamiya A, Harris KD, Buzsáki G. J Neurophysiol 2000 Jul; 84 (1):390-400
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Multiple site silicon-based probes for chronic recordings in freely moving rats: implantation, recording and histological verification.
Bragin A, Hetke J, Wilson CL, Anderson DJ, Engel J Jr, Buzsáki G. J Neurosci Methods 2000 May 15; 98 (1):77-82
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Firing rate and theta-phase coding by hippocampal pyramidal neurons during 'space clamping'.
Hirase H , Czurko A , Csicsvari J , Buzsaki G . Eur J Neurosci 1999 Dec; 11(12):4373-80

Ultra-slow oscillation (0.025 Hz) triggers hippocampal afterdischarges in Wistar rats.
Penttonen M , Nurminen N , Miettinen R , Sirvio J , Henze DA , Csicsvari J , Buzsaki G . Neuroscience 1999; 94(3):735-43

Hebbian modification of a hippocampal population pattern in the rat.
King C , Henze DA , Leinekugel X , Buzsaki G . J Physiol 1999 Nov; 521 Pt 1():159-67

Replay and time compression of recurring spike sequences in the hippocampus.
Nadasdy Z , Hirase H , Czurko A , Csicsvari J , Buzsaki G . J Neurosci 1999 Nov; 19(21):9497-507

Fast network oscillations in the hippocampal CA1 region of the behaving rat.
Csicsvari J , Hirase H , Czurko A , Mamiya A , Buzsaki G . J Neurosci 1999 Aug; 19(16):RC20

Interdependence of multiple theta generators in the hippocampus: a partial coherence analysis.
Kocsis B , Bragin A , Buzsaki G . J Neurosci 1999 Jul; 19(14):6200-12

Interactions between hippocampus and medial septum during sharp waves and theta oscillation in the behaving rat.
Dragoi G , Carpi D , Recce M , Csicsvari J , Buzsaki G . J Neurosci 1999 Jul; 19(14):6191-9

High-frequency oscillations in human brain.
Bragin A , Engel J Jr , Wilson CL , Fried I , Buzsaki G . Hippocampus 1999; 9(2):137-42

Sustained activation of hippocampal pyramidal cells by 'space clamping' in a running wheel.
Czurko A , Hirase H , Csicsvari J , Buzsaki G . Eur J Neurosci 1999 Jan; 11(1):344-52

Oscillatory coupling of hippocampal pyramidal cells and interneurons in the behaving Rat.
Csicsvari J , Hirase H , Czurko A , Mamiya A , Buzsaki G . J Neurosci 1999 Jan; 19(1):274-87

Gamma frequency oscillation in the hippocampus of the rat: intracellular analysis in vivo.
Penttonen M , Kamondi A , Acsady L , Buzsaki G . Eur J Neurosci 1998 Feb; 10(2):718-28

Remembering the Caribbean: the Spring Hippocampal Research Conference.
Buhl EH , Buzsaki G . Neuron 1998 Jul; 21(1):27-35

Memory consolidation during sleep: a neurophysiological perspective.
Buzsaki G . J Sleep Res 1998; 7 Suppl 1():17-23

Dendritic spikes are enhanced by cooperative network activity in the intact hippocampus.
Kamondi A , Acsady L , Buzsaki G . J Neurosci 1998 May; 18(10):3919-28

Operational dynamics in the hippocampal-entorhinal axis.
Chrobak JJ , Buzsaki G . Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1998 Mar; 22(2):303-10

GABAergic cells are the major postsynaptic targets of mossy fibers in the rat hippocampus.
Acsady L , Kamondi A , Sik A , Freund T , Buzsaki G . J Neurosci 1998 May; 18(9):3386-403

Dendritic properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in the rat: intracellular staining in vivo and in vitro.
Pyapali GK , Sik A , Penttonen M , Buzsaki G , Turner DA . J Comp Neurol 1998 Feb; 391(3):335-52

Gamma oscillations in the entorhinal cortex of the freely behaving rat.
Chrobak JJ , Buzsaki G . J Neurosci 1998 Jan; 18(1):388-98

Functions for interneuronal nets in the hippocampus.
Buzsaki G . Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1997 May; 75(5):508-15

MK-801-induced neuronal damage in rats.
Horvath ZC , Czopf J , Buzsaki G . Brain Res 1997 Apr; 753(2):181-95

Termination of epileptic afterdischarge in the hippocampus.
Bragin A , Penttonen M , Buzsaki G . J Neurosci 1997 Apr; 17(7):2567-79

Interneurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus: an in vivo intracellular study.
Sik A , Penttonen M , Buzsaki G . Eur J Neurosci 1997 Mar; 9(3):573-88

Epileptic afterdischarge in the hippocampal-entorhinal system: current source density and unit studies.
Bragin A , Csicsvari J , Penttonen M , Buzsaki G . Neuroscience 1997 Feb; 76(4):1187-203

Feed-forward and feed-back activation of the dentate gyrus in vivo during dentate spikes and sharp wave bursts.
Penttonen M , Kamondi A , Sik A , Acsady L , Buzsaki G . Hippocampus 1997; 7(4):437-50

Pattern and inhibition-dependent invasion of pyramidal cell dendrites by fast spikes in the hippocampus in vivo.
Buzsaki G , Penttonen M , Nadasdy Z , Bragin A . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1996 Sep; 93(18):9921-5

Analysis of gamma rhythms in the rat hippocampus in vitro and in vivo.
Traub RD , Whittington MA , Colling SB , Buzsaki G , Jefferys JG . J Physiol 1996 Jun; 493 ( Pt 2)():471-84

Lack of hippocampal involvement in a rat model of petit mal epilepsy.
Kandel A , Bragin A , Carpi D , Buzsaki G . Epilepsy Res 1996 Mar; 23(2):123-7

The hippocampo-neocortical dialogue.
Buzsaki G . Cereb Cortex 1996 Mar; 6(2):81-92

AMPA receptors in the rat and primate hippocampus: a possible absence of GluR2/3 subunits in most interneurons.
Leranth C , Szeidemann Z , Hsu M , Buzsaki G . Neuroscience 1996 Feb; 70(3):631-52

Structural impairment of hippocampal neurons following a single epileptic afterdischarge.
Horvath Z , Hsu M , Pierre E , Vadi D , Gallyas F , Buzsaki G . Epilepsy Res Suppl 1996; 12():325-34

Interneurons of the hippocampus.
Freund TF , Buzsaki G . Hippocampus 1996; 6(4):347-470

Entorhinal cortical innervation of parvalbumin-containing neurons (Basket and Chandelier cells) in the rat Ammon's horn.
Kiss J , Buzsaki G , Morrow JS , Glantz SB , Leranth C . Hippocampus 1996; 6(3):239-46

GABAergic inhibition of granule cells and hilar neuronal synchrony following ischemia-induced hilar neuronal loss.
Mody I , Otis TS , Bragin A , Hsu M , Buzsaki G . Neuroscience 1995 Nov; 69(1):139-50

Hippocampal CA1 interneurons: an in vivo intracellular labeling study.
Sik A , Penttonen M , Ylinen A , Buzsaki G . J Neurosci 1995 Oct; 15(10):6651-65

Temporal structure in spatially organized neuronal ensembles: a role for interneuronal networks.
Buzsaki G , Chrobak JJ . Curr Opin Neurobiol 1995 Aug; 5(4):504-10

Morphometric and electrical properties of reconstructed hippocampal CA3 neurons recorded in vivo.
Turner DA , Li XG , Pyapali GK , Ylinen A , Buzsaki G . J Comp Neurol 1995 Jun; 356(4):580-94

Effect of cerebral ischemia on calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity and phosphorylation.
Shackelford DA , Yeh RY , Hsu M , Buzsaki G , Zivin JA . J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1995 May; 15(3):450-61

Dentate EEG spikes and associated interneuronal population bursts in the hippocampal hilar region of the rat.
Bragin A , Jando G , Nadasdy Z , van Landeghem M , Buzsaki G . J Neurophysiol 1995 Apr; 73(4):1691-705

Genetic threshold hypothesis of neocortical spike-and-wave discharges in the rat: an animal model of petit mal epilepsy.
Vadasz C , Carpi D , Jando G , Kandel A , Urioste R , Horvath Z , Pierre E , Vadi D , Fleischer A , Buzsaki G . Am J Med Genet 1995 Feb; 60(1):55-63

Gamma (40-100 Hz) oscillation in the hippocampus of the behaving rat.
Bragin A , Jando G , Nadasdy Z , Hetke J , Wise K , Buzsaki G . J Neurosci 1995 Jan; 15(1 Pt 1):47-60

Sharp wave-associated high-frequency oscillation (200 Hz) in the intact hippocampus: network and intracellular mechanisms.
Ylinen A , Bragin A , Nadasdy Z , Jando G , Szabo I , Sik A , Buzsaki G . J Neurosci 1995 Jan; 15(1 Pt 1):30-46

Intracellular correlates of hippocampal theta rhythm in identified pyramidal cells, granule cells, and basket cells.
Ylinen A , Soltesz I , Bragin A , Penttonen M , Sik A , Buzsaki G . Hippocampus 1995; 5(1):78-90

Spike-and-wave epilepsy in rats: sex differences and inheritance of physiological traits.
Jando G , Carpi D , Kandel A , Urioste R , Horvath Z , Pierre E , Vadi D , Vadasz C , Buzsaki G . Neuroscience 1995 Jan; 64(2):301-17

Possible physiological role of the perforant path-CA1 projection.
Buzsaki G , Penttonen M , Bragin A , Nadasdy Z , Chrobak JJ . Hippocampus 1995; 5(2):141-6

Short-term and long-term changes in the postischemic hippocampus.
Hsu M , Sik A , Gallyas F , Horvath Z , Buzsaki G . Ann N Y Acad Sci 1994 Nov; 743():121-39; discussion 139-40

Hippocampal theta activity following selective lesion of the septal cholinergic system.
Lee MG , Chrobak JJ , Sik A , Wiley RG , Buzsaki G . Neuroscience 1994 Oct; 62(4):1033-47

Inhibitory CA1-CA3-hilar region feedback in the hippocampus.
Sik A , Ylinen A , Penttonen M , Buzsaki G . Science 1994 Sep; 265(5179):1722-4

The hippocampal CA3 network: an in vivo intracellular labeling study.
Li XG , Somogyi P , Ylinen A , Buzsaki G . J Comp Neurol 1994 Jan; 339(2):181-208

Morphologic alterations of choline acetyltransferase-positive neurons in the basal forebrain of aged behaviorally characterized Fisher 344 rats.
Armstrong DM , Sheffield R , Buzsaki G , Chen KS , Hersh LB , Nearing B , Gage FH . Neurobiol Aging 1993 Sep; 14(5):457-70

Pattern recognition of the electroencephalogram by artificial neural networks.
Jando G , Siegel RM , Horvath Z , Buzsaki G . Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1993 Feb; 86(2):100-9

Persisting axonal degeneration in the hippocampus after transection of the fimbria-fornix.
Miettinen R , Lahtinen H , Riekkinen PJ , Freund TF , Hsu M , Horvath Z , Buzsaki G . Restor Neurol Neurosci 1993 Jan; 5(3):215-23

Delayed degeneration of the optic tract and neurons in the superior colliculus after forebrain ischemia.
Gallyas F , Hsu M , Buzsaki G . Neurosci Lett 1992 Sep; 144(1-2):177-9

Intraseptal connections redefined: lack of a lateral septum to medial septum path.
Leranth C , Deller T , Buzsaki G . Brain Res 1992 Jun; 583(1-2):1-11

High-frequency network oscillation in the hippocampus.
Buzsaki G , Horvath Z , Urioste R , Hetke J , Wise K . Science 1992 May; 256(5059):1025-7

Physiological and behavioral consequences of delayed septal grafts in the subcortically denervated hippocampus.
Buzsaki G , Hsu M , Horvath Z , Gage FH . Restor Neurol Neurosci 1992 Jan; 4(6):369-80

Kindling-induced changes of protein kinase C levels in hippocampus and neocortex.
Buzsaki G , Hsu M , Horvath Z , Horsburgh K , Sundsmo M , Masliah E , Saitoh T . Epilepsy Res Suppl 1992; 9():279-83; discussion 283-4

Physiological function of granule cells: a hypothesis.
Buzsaki G , Czeh G . Epilepsy Res Suppl 1992; 7():281-90

Distributed changes in rat brain DNA synthesis with long-term habituation and potentiation of the perforant path-granule cell synapse.
Sadile AG , Neugebauer A , Morelli F , Horvath Z , Buzsaki G , Giuditta A . Behav Brain Res 1991 Dec; 46(1):83-94

Network properties of memory trace formation in the hippocampus.
Buzsaki G . Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper 1991 Sep; 67(9):817-35

Hippocampal grafts into the intact brain induce epileptic patterns.
Buzsaki G , Masliah E , Chen LS , Horvath Z , Terry R , Gage FH . Brain Res 1991 Jul; 554(1-2):30-7

The path forward in Hungarian neuroscience.
Antal M , Buzsaki G , Czeh G , Gaal G , Galyas B , Horvath Z , Jakab R , Kabai P , Kiss J , Kocsis B , et al. . Trends Neurosci 1991 May; 14(5):185-8

Emergence and propagation of interictal spikes in the subcortically denervated hippocampus.
Buzsaki G , Hsu M , Slamka C , Gage FH , Horvath Z . Hippocampus 1991 Apr; 1(2):163-80

The cholinergic system and EEG slow waves.
Riekkinen P , Buzsaki G , Riekkinen P Jr , Soininen H , Partanen J . Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1991 Feb; 78(2):89-96

Noradrenergic Control of Thalamic Oscillation: the Role of alpha-2 Receptors.
Buzsaki G , Kennedy B , Solt VB , Ziegler M . Eur J Neurosci 1991; 3(3):222-229

The thalamic clock: emergent network properties.
Buzsaki G . Neuroscience 1991; 41(2-3):351-64

Hippocampal cell death following ischemia: effects of brain temperature and anesthesia.
Freund TF , Buzsaki G , Leon A , Somogyi P . Exp Neurol 1990 Jun; 108(3):251-60

Nucleus basalis lesions fail to induce senile plaques in the rat.
Thal LJ , Mandel RJ , Terry RD , Buzsaki G , Gage FH . Exp Neurol 1990 Apr; 108(1):88-90

Spike-and-wave neocortical patterns in rats: genetic and aminergic control.
Buzsaki G , Laszlovszky I , Lajtha A , Vadasz C . Neuroscience 1990; 38(2):323-33

NGF-dependent sprouting and regeneration in the hippocampus.
Gage FH , Buzsaki G , Armstrong DM . Prog Brain Res 1990; 83():357-70

Petit mal epilepsy and parkinsonian tremor: hypothesis of a common pacemaker.
Buzsaki G , Smith A , Berger S , Fisher LJ , Gage FH . Neuroscience 1990; 36(1):1-14

Relationship of neuronal vulnerability and calcium binding protein immunoreactivity in ischemia.
Freund TF , Buzsaki G , Leon A , Baimbridge KG , Somogyi P . Exp Brain Res 1990; 83(1):55-66

The grafted hippocampus: an epileptic focus.
Buzsaki G , Bayardo F , Miles R , Wong RK , Gage FH . Exp Neurol 1989 Jul; 105(1):10-22

Multisite recording of brain field potentials and unit activity in freely moving rats.
Buzsaki G , Bickford RG , Ryan LJ , Young S , Prohaska O , Mandel RJ , Gage FH . J Neurosci Methods 1989 Jun; 28(3):209-17

Absence of long-term potentiation in the subcortically deafferented dentate gyrus.
Buzsaki G , Gage FH . Brain Res 1989 Apr; 484(1-2):94-101

The effects of unilateral destruction of fimbria-fornix and supracallosal pathways in the rat.
Buzsaki G , Ryan JP , Isaacson RL . Behav Neural Biol 1989 Mar; 51(2):278-88

Long-term potentiation of evoked and spontaneous neuronal activity in the grafted hippocampus.
Buzsaki G , Wiesner J , Henriksen SJ , Gage FH . Exp Brain Res 1989; 76(2):401-8

Neuronal activity in the subcortically denervated hippocampus: a chronic model for epilepsy.
Buzsaki G , Ponomareff GL , Bayardo F , Ruiz R , Gage FH . Neuroscience 1989; 28(3):527-38

Ischemia-induced changes in the electrical activity of the hippocampus.
Buzsaki G , Freund TF , Bayardo F , Somogyi P . Exp Brain Res 1989; 78(2):268-78

Survival, growth and function of damaged cholinergic neurons.
Gage FH , Tuszynski MH , Chen KS , Armstrong D , Buzsaki G . EXS 1989; 57():259-74

Suppression and induction of epileptic activity by neuronal grafts.
Buzsaki G , Ponomareff G , Bayardo F , Shaw T , Gage FH . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1988 Dec; 85(23):9327-30

Nucleus basalis and thalamic control of neocortical activity in the freely moving rat.
Buzsaki G , Bickford RG , Ponomareff G , Thal LJ , Mandel R , Gage FH . J Neurosci 1988 Nov; 8(11):4007-26

Electric activity in the neocortex of freely moving young and aged rats.
Buzsaki G , Bickford RG , Armstrong DM , Ponomareff G , Chen KS , Ruiz R , Thal LJ , Gage FH . Neuroscience 1988 Sep; 26(3):735-44

Experimental approaches to age-related cognitive impairments.
Gage FH , Chen KS , Buzsaki G , Armstrong D . Neurobiol Aging 1988 Sep; 9(5-6):645-55

Neocortical and hippocampal electrical activity following decapitation in the rat.
Vanderwolf CH , Buzsaki G , Cain DP , Cooley RK , Robertson B . Brain Res 1988 Jun; 451(1-2):340-4

Mechanisms of action of neural grafts in the limbic system.
Buzsaki G , Gage FH . Can J Neurol Sci 1988 May; 15(2):99-105

Perforant path activation of the hippocampus: spatial distribution, effects of urethane and atropine.
Kamondi A , Horvath Z , Bors L , Buzsaki G . Acta Physiol Hung 1988; 71(1):19-29

Restoration and deterioration of function by brain grafts in the septohippocampal system.
Buzsaki G , Freund T , Bjorklund A , Gage FH . Prog Brain Res 1988; 78():69-77

Long-term potentiation induced by physiologically relevant stimulus patterns.
Buzsaki G , Haas HL , Anderson EG . Brain Res 1987 Dec; 435(1-2):331-3

Cellular activity of intracerebrally transplanted fetal hippocampus during behavior.
Buzsaki G , Czopf J , Kondakor I , Bjorklund A , Gage FH . Neuroscience 1987 Sep; 22(3):871-83

Restoration of rhythmic slow activity (theta) in the subcortically denervated hippocampus by fetal CNS transplants.
Buzsaki G , Gage FH , Czopf J , Bjorklund A . Brain Res 1987 Jan; 400(2):334-47

Behavioral dependence of the electrical activity of intracerebrally transplanted fetal hippocampus.
Buzsaki G , Gage FH , Kellenyi L , Bjorklund A . Brain Res 1987 Jan; 400(2):321-33

Grafts of fetal cholinergic neurons to the deafferented hippocampus.
Gage FH , Buzsaki G , Nilsson O , Bjorklund A . Prog Brain Res 1987; 71():335-47

Application of the glycine labelling method to the cerebellum, hippocampus and spinal cord.
Rojik I , Baranyi A , Buzsaki G , Urban L , Feher O . Acta Biol Hung 1987; 38(3-4):393-407

Septal deafferentation produces continuous rhythmic slow activity (theta) in the rat hippocampus.
Kvirkvelia L , Buzsaki G , Grastyan E . Acta Physiol Hung 1987; 70(1):127-31

Hippocampal sharp waves: their origin and significance.
Buzsaki G . Brain Res 1986 Nov; 398(2):242-52

Effects of confinement, previous experience and hippocampal damage on the DRL schedule.
Acsadi G , Buzsaki G , Keszthelyi T , Kiralyfalvi L , Gage FH . Behav Brain Res 1986 May; 20(2):241-8

Depth profiles of hippocampal rhythmic slow activity ('theta rhythm') depend on behaviour.
Buzsaki G , Rappelsberger P , Kellenyi L . Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1985 Jul; 61(1):77-88

Feed-forward inhibition in the hippocampal formation.
Buzsaki G . Prog Neurobiol 1984; 22(2):131-53
[PDF]

Spectral analysis of hippocampal unit train in relation to hippocampal EEG.
Leung LW , Buzsaki G . Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1983 Dec; 56(6):668-71

Cellular bases of hippocampal EEG in the behaving rat.
Buzsaki G , Leung LW , Vanderwolf CH . Brain Res 1983 Oct; 287(2):139-71

Direct afferent excitation and long-term potentiation of hippocampal interneurons.
Buzsaki G , Eidelberg E . J Neurophysiol 1982 Sep; 48(3):597-607

The "where is it?" reflex: autoshaping the orienting response.
Buzsaki G . J Exp Anal Behav 1982 May; 37(3):461-84
[PDF]

Spatial mapping, working memory, and the fimbria-fornix system.
Buzsaki G , Bors L , Nagy F , Eidelberg E . J Comp Physiol Psychol 1982 Feb; 96(1):26-34

Changes in neuronal transmission in the rat hippocampus during behavior.
Buzsaki G , Grastyan E , Czopf J , Kellenyi L , Prohaska O . Brain Res 1981 Nov; 225(2):235-47

Hippocampal slow wave activity during appetitive and aversive conditioning in the cat.
Buzsaki G , Haubenreiser J , Grastyan E , Czopf J , Kellenyi L . Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1981 Mar; 51(3):276-90

Importance of cue location for intact and fimbria-fornix-lesioned rats.
Buzsaki G , Grastyan E , Mod L , Winiczai Z . Behav Neural Biol 1980 Jun; 29(2):176-89

Effects of scopolamine upon hippocampal electrical activity associated with running and swimming in rats.
Buzsaki G , Kellenyi L , Grastyan E . Physiol Behav 1980 Jan; 24(1):191-4

Differential contribution of fimbria and fornix fibers to behavior.
Buzsaki G , Acsadi G , Jani A . Behav Neural Biol 1980 Jan; 28(1):79-88

Hippocampal evoked potentials and EEG changes during classical conditioning in the rat.
Buzsaki G , Grastyan E , Tveritskaya IN , Czopf J . Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1979 Jul; 47(1):64-74

The orienting-exploratory response hypothesis of discriminative conditioning.
Grastyan E , Buzsaki G . Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 1979; 39(6):491-501

Maintenance of signal directed behavior in a response dependent paradigm: a systems approach.
Buzsaki G , Grastyan E , Winiczai Z , Mod L . Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 1979; 39(4):201-17

Auto-shaping or orienting?
Buzsaki G , Grastyan E , Molnar P , Tveritskaya IN , Haubenreiser J . Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 1979; 39(4):179-200

Dynamic phase-shifts between theta generators in the rat hippocampus.
Buzsaki G , Grastyan E , Kellenyi L , Czopf J . Acta Physiol Acad Sci Hung 1979; 53(1):41-5

Simple device for the tape recording of complex behavioral situation on one track.
Kellenyi L , Buzsaki G . Physiol Behav 1977 Sep; 19(3):449-50

[Electrophysiological analysis of the effect of atropine on the self-stimulation reaction in cats].
Baklavadzhian O , Buzsaki G , Angyan L . Acta Physiol Acad Sci Hung 1973; 44(3-4):217-26

BOOKS & CHAPTERS


AUTHORED


 


Rhythms of the Brain.
Buzsáki, G. Rhythms of the Brain. Oxford University Press (2006)


Animal Learning.
Buzsáki, G. Natura Press, Budapest, 1984, (in Hungarian) pp.1-142.

 

http://www.amazon.com/Rhythms-Brain-Gyorgy-Buzsaki/dp/0199828237

  1. http://tdlc.ucsd.edu/research/highlights/GoodrichWeDoThereforeWeThink.pdf

 

  1. http://www.gnxp.com/blog/2007/01/10-questions-for-gyki.php

 

  1. http://brainsciencpodcast.wordpress.com/

 

 

 

 

EDITED

 

Temporal Coding in the Brain
Buzsáki, G., R. Llinas, W. Singer, A. Berthoz and Y. Christen (eds.) , Springer, Heidelberg, 1994, pp.1-303.

 

Synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus.
Haas, H. L., and Buzsáki, G. (eds.) Springer, Heidelberg, 1987, pp.1-215.

 

Electrical activity of the archicortex.
Buzsáki, G. and Vanderwolf, C. H. (eds.) Akademiai Kiado, Budapest, 1985, pp.1-361.

 

 

CHAPTERS



Hippocampus: network physiology.
Buzsáki G. Gordon Shepherd (eds.) Neural Microcircuits, MIT Press 2009.


Hilar mossy cells: functional identification and activity in vivo. In: The Dentate Gyrus: a comprehensive guide to structure function and clinical applications
Henze, DA, Buzsáki G. (Helen E. Scharfman, ed.) 2007. 787 pages


Inhibition: Diversity of cortical functions.
Buzsáki, G. In: H.L. Roediger III, Y. Dudai , SM Fitzpatrick (eds) Science of Memory: Concepts. Oxford University Press. 2007 pp. 285-289.


Maintenance and modification of firing rates and sequences in the hippocampus: does sleep play a role?
Buzsáki, G. Carpi, D., Csicsvari, J., Dragoi, G, Harris, K.D., Henze, D. A., Hirase, H. In: Maquet, P., Smith, C., and Stickgold, R. (eds). Sleep and Plasticity. Oxford University Press., Oxford. 2003. Pp. 247-270.


Single cell contribution to network activity in the hippocampus.
Henze, D. A., and Buzsáki, G. In: T. Ono, G. Matsumoto, R. R. Llinas, A. Berthoz, R. Norgren, H. Hishijo, R. Tamura (eds) Cognition and emotion in the brain. Excerpta Medica. Ingernational congress series 1250. 2003. pp. 161-182.


The cellular synaptic generation of EEG. In: Current Practice of Clinical Encephalography.
Buzsáki, G., Traub, R. D. and Pedley, T., (J. S. Ebersole and T. A. Pedley, eds). Lippincott-Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia (3rd edition), 2003. pp. 1-11.


Network oscillations in the hippocampal formation.
Buzsáki, G. In: Frontiers of Life. D. Baltimore, R., Dulbecco, F. Jacob, R. Levi-Montalcini (eds). Academic Press, New York. 2000. Volume 4. Pp 575-588.


Two-phase computational model training long-term memories in the entorhinal-hippocampal region.
Lörincz, A. and Buzsáki, G. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 911:83-111, 2000.


GABAergic interneuronal networks in the hippocampus. Buzsáki, G., Dragoi, G., Csicsvari, J., Hirase, H., Czurko, A. and Henze D. (2000) D. L. Martin and Olsen, R. W. (eds) GABA in the Nervous System. Lipincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia. Pp. 317-336.


State-dependent changes in network activity of the hippocampal formation.
Chrobak, J. and Buzsáki, G. In: Handbook of Behavioral State Conrol: Cellular and Molecular Mechanism. R. Lydic and H. A. Baghdoyan (Eds.) CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.1999. pp. 349-362.


Oscillazioni di reti neuronali nell’ippocampo (Network oscillations in the hippocampal formation)
Buzsáki, G., D. Baltimore, R., Dulbecco, F. Jacob, R. Levi-Montalcini (eds). Frontiere Della Vita, Instituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, vol. III. (537-548), 1999.


Extracellular recording and analysis of electrical activity: from single cells to ensembles.
Nadasdy, Z., Csicsvari J, Penttonen, M. and Buzsáki, G. (1998) In: Neuronal ensembles: Strategies for recording and decoding. (H. Eichenbaum and J. L. Davis, eds.) Wiley-Liss, New York. Pp. 17-55.


The constraint of synaptic potentiation and memory formation by entorhinal-hippocampal network dynamics.
Chrobak, J. and Buzsáki, G. In: Long-term potentiation. Vol. 3. HM. Baudry and J. L. Davis (Eds.) MIT Press, Boston, 1997. Pp. 215-232.


Generation of EEG.
Buzsáki, G. and Traub, R. D. In: Epilepsy: a comprehensive textbook. (J. Engel, Jr. and T. A. Pedley, eds). Lippincott-Raven Press (1996)


Structural impairment of hippocampal neurons following a single epileptic afterdischarge.
Horváth, Z. Hsu, M., Pierre, E., Vadi, D., Gallyas, F. and Buzsáki, G. In: Chronic epilepsy models (U. Heinemann and J. Engel eds.). Raven, NY (1996)


Memory consolidation in the "non-aroused" brain: a physiological perspective.
Buzsáki, G., Bragin, A., Chrobak, J. J. and Nadasdy, Z. In: Maturational windows and cortical plasticity: is there a reason for an optimistic view? (B. Julesz, G. Cowan and I. Kovacs, eds.), SFI Studies in the Sciences and Complexity. Addison-Wesley, (1995)


Short-term and long-term changes in the postischemic hippocampus
Hsu, M, Sik, A., Gallyas, F., Horvath, Z., Buzsáki, G. (V. Luine and C. F. Harding, eds.) Annals of the NY Academy of Sciences, NY vol. 743: 121-140, (1994)


Oscillatory and intermittent synchrony in the hippocampus: relevance to memory trace formation.
Buzsáki, G., Bragin, A., Chrobak, J. J. , Nadasdy, Z., Sik, A. , Hsu, M. and Ylinen, A. In: Temporal Coding in the Brain (G. Buzsáki, R. Llinas, A. Singer, W. Berthoz and Y. Christen), Springer, Heidelberg, pp. 145-172, (1994).


Kindling-induced changes of protein kinase C levels in hippocampus and neocortex.
Buzsáki, G., Hsu, M., Horvath, Z., Hogsburgh, K., Sundsmo, M., Masliah, E. and Saitoh, T. In: Molecular Neurobiology of Epilepsy (G. Avanzini, E. A. Cavalheiro, U. Heinemann, C. Wasterlain and J. Engel., Jr., eds). Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 279-284, (1992)


Network properties of the thalamic clock: role of oscillatory behavior in mood disorders.
Buzsáki, G. In: Induced rhythms of the brain (E. Basar and T. H. Bullock, eds.) Birkhäuser, Boston, pp. 235-250, (1992)


Neuronal grafts in epilepsy research.
Buzsáki, G. and Gage, F. H. In: Surgery of Epilepsy (H. Lüders, ed.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 737-740, (1992)


Fetal tissue grafts modulate neuronal excitability in a chronic model of epilepsy.
Buzsáki, G. and Gage, F. H. In: Neurotransmitters in epilepsy (G. Avanzini, J. Engel, Jr., R. Fariello and U. Heinemann, eds.). Elsevier, Amsterdam. pp. 271-282, (1992).


Excitatory amino acid receptors in human temporal lobe epilepsy and in animal models.
Geddes, J. W., Ulas, J., Buzsáki, G., and Cotman, C. W. In: Excitatory Amino Acids (B. S. Meldrum, F. Moroni, and J. H. Woods, eds.). Raven Press, New York, pp. 749-757, (1991)


Physiological function of granule cells: a hypothesis. In: The hippocampal dentate gyrus and its role in seizures
Buzsáki, G. and Czeh, G. (C. E. Ribak, C. M. Gall and I. Mody, eds.) Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 281-290, (1991)


Long-term potentiation: Does it happen in the normal brain? When and how?
Buzsáki, G. and Gage, F. H. In: Memory Mechanisms: A tribute to G.V. Goddard, (M. Corballis, K. White and W. C. Abraham eds.) Erlbaum, N.J. pp. 79-102, (1991)


Role of basal forebrain cholinergic system in cortical activation and arousal.
Buzsáki, G. and Gage, F. H. In Activation to Acquisition: Functional Aspects of the Basal Forebrain Cholinergic System. (R. T. Richardson ed.) Birkhauser, Boston, pp. 115-133, (1991)


Reconstruction of the basal forebrain cholinergic circuits of the aged and yound brain damaged rat.
Gage, F. H., Buzsáki, G. and Tuszynski, M. H. In: Current Communications in Molecular Biology: the Molecular Biology of Alzheimer's Disease, pp. 149-154, (1990)


Experimental therapeutic approaches: Intracerebral grafting and neurotrophic factors. In: Alzheimer's Disease: Treatment and Long-term Management.
Gage, F. H. and Buzsáki, G. (J. L. Cummings and B. L. Miller, eds.) Dekker, New York. pp.353-370, (1990)


Cognitive impairments in aging: therapeutic approaches.
Gage, F. H., Chen, K. S., Buzsáki, G. and Higgins, G. In: Mechanisms of memory (L. J. Squire, ed.) Schattauer Verlag, Berlin, (1990)


Spatial organization of physiological activity in the hippocampal formation: relevance to memory formation.
Buzsáki, G., Chen,L. S. and Gage, F. H. In: Progress in Brain Research. (J. Storm-Mathisen, H. Zimmer and O. P. Ottersen eds.) Understanding the brain through the hippocampus. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 257-268, (1990)


NGF-dependent sprouting and regeneration in the hippocampus.
Gage, F. H., Buzsáki, G. and Amstrong, D. M. In: Progress in Brain Research, (J. Storm-Mathisen, H. Zimmer and O. P. Ottersen eds.) Understanding the brain through the hippocampus. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 357-370, (1990)


Parallel activation of thalamic and cortical neurons by brainstem and basal forebrain cholinergic systems.
Steriade, M. and Buzsáki, G. In: Brain Cholinergic Systems (M. Steriade and D. Biesold, eds.) Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 3-64,(1990)


Survival, growth and function of damaged cholinergic neurons.
Gage, F. H., Tuszynski, M. H., Chen, K. S., Armstrong, D.and Buzsáki, G. In: Central cholinergic synaptic transmission. (M. Frotscher and J. Misgeld, eds.) Springer: Berlin, pp. 259-274, (1989)


CNS grafting: the potential mechanism of action. In: Neural regeneration and Transplantation.
Gage, F. H., and Buzsáki, G. (F.J. Seil ed.) Alan R. Liss, New York. pp. 211-226, (1989)


Pathophysiology of the subcortically deafferented hippocampus. In: Neuronal Grafting and Alzheimer's disease.
Buzsáki, G. and Gage, F. H. (F. H. Gage, A. Privat and Y. Christen, eds.) Springer: Berlin, pp. 101-119, (1989)


The cholinergic nucleus basalis: a key structure in neocortical arousal.
Buzsáki, G. and Gage, F. H. In: Central cholinergic synaptic transmission. (M. Frotscher and J. Misgeld, eds.) Springer: Berlin, pp. 159-171, (1989)


Neuronal grafting in the adult hippocampal formation.
Gage, F. H. and Buzsáki, G. In: The hippocampus-New vistas (V. Chan-Palay and C. Kohler, eds.) Alan R. Liss, New York pp. 237-255, (1989)


Restoration and deterioration of function by brain grafts in the septohippocampal system.
Buzsáki, G., Freund, T., Bjorklund, A. and Gage, F. H. In: Progress in Brain Research (D. M. Gash and J. R. Sladek Jr. eds.). 78: 69-77, (1988)


Neural grafts: Possible mechanisms of action. In: Neural Plasticity: A Lifespan Approach.
Buzsáki, G. and Gage, F. H. (T.L. Petit and G.O. Iwy eds.) Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 171-199, (1987)


Hippocampal sharp waves: A physiological correlate of LTP?
Buzsáki, G. and Haas, H. L. In: Synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. (H.L. Haas and G. Buzsáki eds.) Springer, Heidelberg, pp. 90-92 (1987)


Generation of hippocampal slow wave patterns.
Buzsáki, G. In: The Hippocampus. (R.L. Isaacson and K. Pribram eds.) vol. 3. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 137-167, (1986.)


Restoration of RSA (theta) in the denervated hippocampus by brain transplants.
Buzsáki, G., Gage, F. H. and Bjorklund, A. In: Learning and Memory: Mechanisms of Information Storage in the Nervous System. (H. Matthies ed.) Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 137-140, (1986)


Electroanatomy of the hippocampal rhythmic slow wave activity (RSA) in the behaving rat.
Buzsáki, G. In: Electrical Activity of the Archicortex. (G. Buzsáki and C. H. Vanderwolf eds.) Akademiai Kiado, Budapest, pp. 190-211, (1985)


What does the "LTP model" of memory, model? In: Brain Plasticity, Learning and Memory.
Buzsáki, G. (B. Will, P. Schmitt, J.C. Dalrymple-Alford, eds.) Plenum Press, New York, pp. 157-166, (1985).


Hippocampal slow waves: Sources of controversy. In: Neuronal Plasticity and Memory Formation
Buzsáki, G., Grastyan, E., Haubenreiser, J., Czopf, J. and Kellenyi, L. , (C. Ajmone Marsan and H. Matthies eds.) Raven Press, New York, pp. 511-529, (1982)


Why do we need a new theory of learning?
Buzsáki, G. In: Biologiai Tanulmanyok, (V. Csanyi, ed.) Akademiai Kiado, pp. 128-154, (1982) (in Hungarian)


The electrical correlates of the conditioned reflex in the cat.
Grastyan, E., Buzsáki, G., Molnar, P. and Lenard, L. In: Functional Significance of the Electric Processes of the Brain. Nauka Press, pp. 11-20, (1977) (in Russian)


Three different functional states reflected by two components of the hippocampal theta wave complex.
Grastyan, E., Molnar, P., Buzsáki, G. and Lenard, L. In: The Brain Mechanism, (T. N. Oniani ed.) Metsniereba Publishers, Tbilisi, USSR, pp. 288-295, (1975)

REVIEWS & ESSAYS

ESSAYS

György Buzsáki (2007): The structure of consciousness. Nature 446:267 [PDF].

Buzsáki, G., Pare, D. (2006) Mircea Steriade (1924--2006). Nature Neuroscience 9:713



COMMENTARIES & BOOK REVIEWS

Others about us:


We Do, Therefore We Think: Time, Motility, and Consciousness. Goodrich B. Reviews in the Neurosciences 21, 331-361 (2010) [PDF]


The Brain Prize 2011: From Microcircuit Organization to Constellations of Brain Rhythms.
Soltesz I. Trends Neurosci. 2011 Oct;34(10):501-3. Epub 2011 Sep 13 [PDF]


Polyrhythms of the brain.
Battaglia FP, McNaughton BL. Neuron. 2011 Oct 6;72(1):6-8. [PDF]


Distinct or Gradually Changing Spatial and Nonspatial Representations along the Dorsoventral Axis of the Hippocampus.
Yartsev M. J Neurophysiol 30(23):7758-7760, 2010. [PDF]


Hippocampal Neural Assemblies and Conscious Remembering.
Shirvalkar PR. J Neurophysiol 101: 2197-2200, 2009. [Full Text]


The Multiple Origins and Laminar Topography of the Hippocampal Theta Rhythm.
Shirvalkar PR, Bahar AS. J. Neurosci. 2009; 29: 7111-7113. [PDF]


Brain is a hypercomplex space-time translator.
Oleg Senkov (2008). Scientific America Russia. [Full Text (Russian)] [Full Text (English)]


Alzheimer Research Forum. (Commentary on Pastalkova et al. (2008), Science 5894:1322-7)
Tom Fagan (2008). [Full Text]


Selected for Faculty of 1000 Biology (Commentary on Pastalkova et al. (2008), Science 5894:1322-7)
[Full Text after login]


Interview with Greg Miller(Commentary on Pastalkova et al. (2008), Science 5894:1322-7) .
Science Magazine(2008). [MP3]


Learning and memory: Replay that track.(Commentary on Pastalkova et al. (2008), Science 5894:1322-7)
Leonie Welberg (2008). Nature Reviews Neuroscience 9, 739. [PDF]


Hippocampal Firing Patterns Linked to Memory Recall.(Commentary on Pastalkova et al. (2008), Science 5894:1322-7)
Greg Miller (2008). Science 321 5894:1280-1281. [PDF]


Book review on Buzsáki, G. (2006): Rhythms of the Brain.
John G. Milton (2007). MathSciNet [PDF] (Oxford University Press.)


Book review on Buzsáki, G. (2006): Rhythms of the Brain.
Dimitri M. Kullmann (2007). Neuron 55:694-695 [PDF] (Oxford University Press.)


Book review on Buzsáki, G. (2006): Rhythms of the Brain.
Rodolfo.R. Llinás (2007). Neuroscience 149:726-727. [PDF] ( Oxford University Press.)


Book review on Buzsáki, G. (2006): Rhythms of the Brain.
John Lisman (2007). Nat Neurosc 10:395. [PDF] (Oxford University Press.)


Book review on Buzsáki, G. (2006): Rhythms of the Brain.
Mayank Mehta (2007). Nature 446:27. [PDF]. (Oxford University Press.)


Dialogues between Cortex and Hippocampus: Who Talks to Whom?
Tononi G, Massimini M, Riedner BA. Neuron. 52:748-9 2006 [PDF].


High times for memory: cannabis disrupts temporal coordination among hippocampal neurons.(Article on Robbe et al. (2006), Nat Neuroscience 9:1526-33)
Soltesz I, Staley K. Nat Neurosci. 9:1461-3 2006 [PDF].


Several commentaries in the popular press.
on Robbe et al. (2006), Nat Neuroscience 9:1526-33


The Powers of Rhythm.(Book review on Buzsáki, G. (2006): Rhythms of the Brain)
Fries, P. (2006): Science 314(5796):58-59 [PDF]. Oxford University Press.


Neurobiology: Interneurons take charge.
Moser, E.I. (2003): Nature 421:797-799 [PDF]. (News and Views article on Klausberger et al. (2003), Nature [PDF].)


A prominent role for intrinsic neuron properties in temporal coding.
Magee, J.C. (2003): TINS 26:14-16 [PDF]. (Article on Harris et al. (2002), Nature [PDF].)


Windows on the brain.(News feature covering work in our lab.)
Chicurel, M. (2001): Nature 412: 266-268 [PDF].


The Cortical Discoverer Award: György Buzsáki.
Ribak, C.E. (2001): Krieg Cortical Kudos 2001: Cerebral Cortex 11:888-890 [PDF].

 

We about others:
How do neurons sense a spike burst? (Preview)
Buzsáki G. (2012): Neuron 8;73:857-9. [PDF].


Cognitive neuroscience: Time, space and memory. (News and Views)
Buzsáki G. (2013): Nature 497:568-9. [PDF].


Synaptic plasticity and self-organization in the hippocampus. (News and Views)
Buzsáki G. and Chrobak JJ. (2005): Nat Neurosci. 8:1418-20. [PDF].


Neuroscience: Neurons and navigation. (News and Views)
Buzsáki, G. (2005): Nature 436:781-2 [PDF].


Similar is different in hippocampal networks. (Perspectives)
Buzsáki, G. (2005): Science 309:568-9 [PDF].


Electrical wiring of the oscillating brain. (Preview)
Buzsáki, G. (2001): Neuron 31:342-344 [PDF].


Interconnected Stories of Brain Rhythms. (Book Review)
Buzsáki, G. (2001): Science 294: 2295-2297 [PDF].

RESOURCES

PUBLICLY AVAILABLE DATASETS

 

see http://crcns.org

HC-1 Simultaneous intracellular and extracellular recordings from hippocampus region CA1 of anesthetized rats.
HC-2 Multiple single unit recordings from the rat hippocampus made during open field foraging
HC-3 Multiple single unit recordings from different rat hippocampal and entorhinal regions while the animals were performing multiple behavioral tasks.

SOFTWARE

 

Neuroscope

Developed by: Lynn Hazan lynn.hazan@myrealbox.com
NeuroScope can display local field potentials (EEG), neuronal spikes, behavioral events, as well as the position of the animal in the environment. It also features limited editing capabilities.

 

Klusters

Developed by: Lynn Hazan lynn.hazan@myrealbox.com
Klusters is a powerful and easy-to-use cluster cutting application designed to help neurophysiologists sort action potentials from multiple neurons on groups of electrodes (e.g., tetrodes or multisite silicon probes).

 

Klustakwik

Developed by: Kenneth D. Harris lynn.hazan@myrealbox.com
KlustaKwik is a program for automatic cluster analysis, specifically designed to run fast on large data sets.

 

CONTACT

 


BUZSAKI LAB

György Buzsáki, M.D., Ph.d.
Biggs Professor of Neural Sciences
NYU Neuroscience Institute
New York University, Langone Medical Center
East River Science Park, 450 East 29th Street,9th Floor,
New York, NY 10016
Tel: 212-263-9118; Fax: 646-501-4529
Email: Gyorgy.Buzsaki@nyumc.org
http://www.buzsakilab.com

 

We will either find a way or we make one (Hannibal, 218 v. Chr)
We took the challenge of figuring out how to perform simultaneously extracellular and intracellular data in freely behaving mice. In turn, this innovation allowed us to examine how population activity during sharp wave ripples is reflected by the membrane potential fluctuations of hippocampal pyramidal cells. We uncovered a strong shunting inhibition and demonstrate that spikes are initiated orthodromically due to transient gain of excitation over inhibition. These observations reveal important differences between findings in vitro and in vivo.
These experiments examined how the CA3 and entorhinal inputs affect the activity in the CA1 network through theta-gamma coupling. It shows that upstream neurons fire coherently with LFP gamma activity in the target dendritic layer. However, gamma coupling of principal cells across regions is rather poor and decreases with gamma frequency. LFP gamma activity in the somatic layer is a combination of passive return currents from the dendrites, feed-forward somatic inhibition and superimposed spikes of synchronously firing neurons.
The role of cholinergic inputs in hippocampal activity has been studied for decades. In this optogenetic study we should that activation of septal cholinergic neurons suppresses ripples, increases theta power under anesthesia but much less so during waking. Peritheta frequencies are suppress under both conditions. Images shows cholinergic neurons and fibers in medial septum.
These free data sets contain >25 hours of large-scale recordings of neuronal activity in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. We offer these data for public use with the understanding that data mining by bright people can result in new discoveries.
The mechanisms by which ripple oscillations contribute to memory consolidation are unclear. Using multisite closed-loop optogenetic manipulations in freely moving mice and rats, complemented with local pharmacological manipulation, we show that temporally precise local interactions between excitatory and inhibitory neurons underlie ripple generation. These findings constrain the mechanism involved in generation and spatial coordination of ripple oscillations.
Since the anatomical substrate that generate theta currents and spindle oscillation related currents in the hippocampus are very similar, we compared their physiological mechanisms. Despite the similarity of the mesoscopic LFP patterns, we find that the spike content organization of theta waves and spindle waves are dramatically different. Phase-organized metachrony characterizes theta oscillations, while neurons are largely synchronous during spindles.
Temporally evolving cell assemblies broadcast their spike outputs to target neurons in the form of EPSPs and IPSPs ('synapsembles'). The induced transmembrane changes can also be measured in the extracellular space as spatio-temporally varying mesoscopic local field potentials (LFP). Monitoring large number of sites in the neuronal space therefore should offer rich information about the workings of the network. We tested this hypothesis in this work and demonstrate that the position of the rat in the environment can be reliably 'read out' from the 'demodulated' LFP which rides on the carrier theta oscillations in the hippocampus.
The combination of optogenetics and large-scale neuronal recordings allows specific interneuron populations to be identified and perturbed for circuit analysis in intact animals. A crucial aspect of this approach is coupling electrophysiological recording with spatially and temporally precise light delivery. Recent progress demonstrates the utility and power of this novel technique for interneuron research.
We often assume that the variables of functional and structural brain parameters — such as synaptic weights, the firing rates of individual neurons, the synchronous discharge of neural populations, the number of synaptic contacts between neurons and the size of dendritic boutons — have a bell-shaped distribution. However, at many physiological and anatomical levels in the brain, the distribution of numerous parameters is in fact strongly skewed with a heavy tail, suggesting that skewed (typically lognormal) distributions are fundamental to structural and functional brain organization.
A topographical relationship exists between the septotemporal segments of the hippocampus and their entorhinal–neocortical targets, but the physiological organization of activity along the septotemporal axis is poorly understood. We recorded sharp-wave ripple patterns in rats during sleep from the entire septotemporal axis of the CA1 pyramidal layer.
Despite the several-thousand-fold increase of brain volume during the course of mammalian evolution, the hierarchy of brain oscillations remains remarkably preserved, allowing for multiple-time-scale communication within and across neuronal networks at approximately the same speed, irrespective of brain size. Deployment of large-diameter axons of long-range neurons could be a key factor in the preserved time management in growing brains. We discuss the consequences of such preserved network constellation in mental disease, drug discovery, and interventional therapies.
Using optogenetic methods to activate parvalbumin immunoreactive interneurons (PV) in the hippocampus and neocortex we show that PV neurons can induce theta-band-limited, excess postinhibitory spiking in pyramidal cells (theta resonance).
Monitoring representative fractions of neurons from multiple brain circuits in behaving animals is necessary for understanding neuronal computation. Here we describe a system that allows high channel count recordings from a small volume of neuronal tissue using a lightweight signal multiplexing head-stage that permits free behavior of small rodents. These methods will allow the investigation of circuit operations and behavior-dependent inter-regional interactions for testing hypotheses of neural networks and brain function.
Using simultaneous recordings from multiple layers of the entorhinal–hippocampal loop, we found that coactivation of principal cell pairs (synchrony) was lowest during exploration and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, associated with theta oscillations, and highest in slow wave sleep. Individual principal neurons had a wide range of theta phase preference. Thus, while theta oscillations reduce population synchrony, they nevertheless coordinate the phase (temporal) distribution of neurons. As a result, multiple cell assemblies can nest within the period of the theta cycle.
This work addressed a long-standing ‘neuromyth’ (SFN Neuromyths; “We use only 10% of our brain”). The answers are both complex and interesting. They demonstrate that the brain is largely a preconfigured network where a minority of neurons does most of the work all the time. The lognormal distribution of firing rates, synaptic strengths and the magnitude of population patterns are likely a general rule and has important implications from perception (Weber law) to memory.
In many applications it is critical that only those neurons are activated and silenced which at the same time are monitored. In this work we demonstrate how a wave guide can be monolithically integrated silicon probes. High spatial precision enables optical excitation of virally or genetically targeted neurons with minimal power and recording of single-units in dense cortical and subcortical regions. Shown here is an 8-site silicon probe with an optical guide. Ideally, all future silicon probes should be equipped with wave guides described here.
We introduce a new head-fixed paradigm where all changing stimuli are controlled by the locomotion of the mouse. We demonstrate how division of labor between perisomatic (parvalbumin (PV) expressing) or dendrite-targeting (somatostatin (SOM) expressing) interneurons affect the rate, bursting and timing of pyramidal neurons, using optogenetic methods combined with large-scale silicon probe recordings of unit activity.
Here we propose that mechanisms of memory and planning have evolved from mechanisms of navigation in the physical world and hypothesize that the neuronal algorithms underlying navigation in real and mental space are fundamentally the same. We review experimental data in support of this hypothesis and discuss how specific firing patterns and oscillatory dynamics in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus can support both navigation and memory.
This works assigns assign a prominent role of REM sleep in sleep-related neuronal plasticity by demonstrating how firing rates of hippocampal pyramidal cells and interneurons and their synchrony changes during the sleep cycle.
Theta waves are phase shifted by 180o across cell layers, between CA1 and CA3 regions and from the septal to the temporal pole of the hippocampus.
Spikes contribute to the higher frequency bands of the local field. This work quantified the contribution of spiking to ripple oscillations in the hippocampal CA1 region.
Experimental setup for closed-loop feedback transcranial electrical stimulation (TES). Here, we demonstrate that seizure-triggered, feedback TES can dramatically reduce spike-and-wave episodes in a rodent model of generalized epilepsy. Closed-loop TES can be an effective clinical tool to reduce pathological brain patterns in drug-resistant patients.
Neuronal activity in the brain gives rise to transmembrane currents that can be measured in the extracellular medium. We review here the major contributors of the extracellular signal, including the synaptic transmembrane current, Na(+) and Ca(2+) spikes, ionic fluxes through voltage- and ligand-gated channels, and intrinsic membrane oscillations and address the inverse problem of the local field potential. We also hypothesize that high-density LFP recordings can provide covert access to spiking cell assemblies.
High frequency oscillations are ubiquitous in the brain under both physiological conditions and in disease. This review is part of the special issue dedicated to this important topic. The figure shows the emergence and spread of sharp wave ripples from the hippocampus to the entorhinal cortex.
We describe here a diode-probe system that allows real-time and location-specific control of neuronal activity at multiple sites. Manipulation of neuronal activity in arbitrary spatiotemporal patterns is achieved by means of an optoelectronic array, manufactured by attaching multiple diode-fiber assemblies to high-density silicon probes or wire tetrodes, and implanted into the brains of animals that are expressing light-responsive opsins. The capacity of the system to generate synthetic neural activity patterns facilitates multi-site manipulation of neural circuits in a closed-loop manner in the behaving animal.
Because of their ubiquitous nature and strong correlation with the “operational modes” of local circuits, gamma oscillations provide important clues about neuronal population dynamics in health and disease. Here, we review the cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying gamma oscillations and outline empirical questions and controversial conceptual issues.
We introduce a new head-fixed paradigm where all changing stimuli are controlled by the locomotion of the mouse. We demonstrate how division of labor between perisomatic (parvalbumin (PV) expressing) or dendrite-targeting (somatostatin (SOM) expressing) interneurons affect the rate, bursting and timing of pyramidal neurons, using optogenetic methods combined with large-scale silicon probe recordings of unit activity.
Here, we describe and illustrate our methods for recording multiple single neurons and local field potential in behaving rodent; fabrication of microdrives for chronic recordings with silicon probes and our surgical procedures.
This paper is a 'catalog' of the various physiological, network and behavioral correlates of firing pattern differences and similarities between CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cells in the rat. The conclusions are based on >3,000 CA1 and >2,000 CA3 pyramidal neurons recorded over the years in our lab in various testing environments.
120 years ago Karoly Schaffer made the important discovery of demonstrating the associational connections between the inferior and superior regions (i.e., CA3 and CA1) of the hippocampus. We review the circumstances of the discovery and the impact it made on hippocampal research.
How multiple frequencies in different structures interfere and/or reinforce each other to support behavior is a fascinating question. Here we show how a 4-Hz oscillation in the PFC-VTA axis interact with the hippocampal theta rhythm and how their joint effect can modulate gamma oscillations and unit firing in each of these structures. Such multi level cross-frequency coupling appears an effective mechanism to temporally coordinate neuronal activity in widespread brain areas.
How multiple frequencies in different structures interfere and/or reinforce each other to support behavior is a fascinating question. Here we show how a 4-Hz oscillation in the PFC-VTA axis interact with the hippocampal theta rhythm and how their joint effect can modulate gamma oscillations and unit firing in each of these structures. Such multi level cross-frequency coupling appears an effective mechanism to temporally coordinate neuronal activity in widespread brain areas.
Perhaps the most intensely investigated brain region in the brain is the hippocampal CA1 region. Part of the reasons for this popularity stems from the assumption that this region contains a homogeneous set of pyramidal cells. This work shows that there are at least two sublayers in the CA1 pyramidal layer with distinct biophysical and circuit properties of deep and superficial pyramidal cells. These two circuits can cooperate and segregate information in a brain state-dependent manner. The idea of two sublayers goes back to Schaffer (1882).
Example trace of wide-band traces of ripple (left) and fast gamma (right) oscillation bursts from the CA1 stratum pyramidale (pyr) and radiatum (rad), CA3 pyramidal layer, and dentate granule cell layer (DG S. gran) in a sleeping rat, overlaid on their respective wavelet spectrograms. We examine the cellular, network properties of these respective patterns and show how neocortical-entorhinal inputs can affect their occurrence.
Although glucose is the primary energetic substrate of the brain, it has been debated whether neurons directly metabolize glucose, or alternatively, glucose is broken down to lactate by astrocytes, which feed the neurons by lactate. We examined these hypotheses by examining the incorporation of a nonmetabolizable fluorescent glucose analog (green in the figure; astrocytes red), using 2-photon laser scanning microscopy in the rat S1 cortex in vivo. Whisker stimulation lead to a quick incorporation of the glucose analog in astrocytes but much less so in neurons. These results provide direct support for the glia-neuron "lactate-shuttle" hypothesis of Magistretti and Pellerin put forward 15 years ago. Progress takes time!
While all neuroscientists agree that neurons in the brain come together temporally to form coalitions ('cell assemblies'), there is neither an accepted definition of such hypothetical neuronal assemblies nor a strategy how to identify them. This review suggests that assemblies make sense only from the viewpoint of a goal (referred to as an 'observer or reader' mechanism) and discusses potential experimental paradigms for a disciplined way to study them.
Transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) can produce diffuse currents in the brain and lead to stimulus-locked firing in cortical neurons. The figure shows various configurations of the extracranial electrodes in rats, and the impact of sinusoid ~1 Hz TES on extracellular and intracellular activities. In addition as an experimental tool, TES is an ideal method for therapeutic control of brain activity.
The entorhinal cortex is an important generator theta oscillations and gives rise to interesting dynamics, such as the 'grid' cells of the Mosers. This work provides critical anatomical data about the in vivo connectivity of layer 2, 3 and 5 neurons in the entorhinal cortex of the rat and shows that stellate cells are critical components of theta generation. NeuroLucida data of the reconstructed neurons are available upon request.
This paper describes novel methods for delivering light to a very small volume of brain tissue using the combination of etched optic fibers with large scale recording of neurons by silicon probes in behaving rats and mice. These methods open new possibilities to perturb the local circuit in a controlled manner, activating or silencing only those neurons whose activity is constantly being monitored as well. This work was performed at my 'satellite' lab at Janelia Farm, in collaboration with Jeff Magee and his excellent people.
Spikes of nearly all hippocampal place cells and episode cells oscillate faster than the oscillation frequency of the simultaneously recorded population (also reflected by the LFP theta; as shown by this figure). Our model shows why: the temporal delays between place cells (according to a ‘compression’ rule; i.e., distance representations are proportional to the within-theta spike time delays) shift the population frequency lower. The model accounts for all known major features of hippocampal place cells.
While the hippocampus is a giant single module its inputs, outputs, local wiring and intrinsic properties of neurons differ along the septo-temporal axis. Recording from neurons in dorsal and ventralmost part of the hippocampus, we find numerous quantitative and qualitative differences between these populations. Theta rhythmicity was less pronounced in the ventral part, yet theta oscillations phase modulated gamma power at all locations. Thus, theta may bind together the results local computations into a more global pattern.
How multiple frequencies in different structures interfere and/or reinforce each other to support behavior is a fascinating question. Here we show how a 4-Hz oscillation in the PFC-VTA axis interact with the hippocampal theta rhythm and how their joint effect can modulate gamma oscillations and unit firing in each of these structures. Such multi level cross-frequency coupling appears an effective mechanism to temporally coordinate neuronal activity in widespread brain areas.
no description
How multiple frequencies in different structures interfere and/or reinforce each other to support behavior is a fascinating question. Here we show how a 4-Hz oscillation in the PFC-VTA axis interact with the hippocampal theta rhythm and how their joint effect can modulate gamma oscillations and unit firing in each of these structures. Such multi level cross-frequency coupling appears an effective mechanism to temporally coordinate neuronal activity in widespread brain areas.
It's been known for more than a century that sleep somehow is important for learning and memory. Sigmund Freud further suspected that what we learned during the day was 'rehearsed' by the brain during dreaming, allowing memories to form. But while much recent research has focused on the correlative links between the hippocampus and memory consolidation during sleep, the specific processes that cause long-term memories to form has not been identified. Because sharp wave ripples have been implicated as the key mechanism for transferring transient hippocampal traces for long-term storage in the neocortex (Buzsaki, 1989), we decided to kill all ripples during post-learning sleep. While specific and selective elimination hippocampal ripples did not affect the structure of sleep, it prevented the rats from efficiently learning a hippocampus-dependent maze task. Identification of a specific brain pattern responsible for strengthening learned information could facilitate applied research for more effective treatment of memory disorders. (This image was designed by MZ but NN chose an ugly cover instead of this).
The macroscopic theta oscillation is a result of multiple cooperating theta dipoles. Each layer in each hippocampal region represents a theta current source and the cooperation of these dipoles varies as a function of behavior. Therefore, for the demonstration of a relationship between theta oscillations and behavior/neuronal activity, precise regional verification of the current sources is required.
A long-standing conjecture in neuroscience is that aspects of cognition depend on the brain's ability to self-generate sequential neuronal activity. In this work we show that neurons in the hippocampus fire in sequences that predict which arm of the maze the rat would run next even if it went the wrong way. These sequences likely represent the brain's internal mechanism for planning on the basis of similar past experience. In a radical departure from viewing the hippocampus as a mapping device of the external world, our findings suggest that similar neuronal mechanisms can support recall from memory and the planning of action sequences.
The picture illustrates oscillatory ocean waves, which give rise to surges of local water splashes on the peak of the wave, akin to how theta oscillation biases the occurrence of gamma oscillation splashes throughout the cortex at the peak of hippocampal theta oscillation. We demonstrate how hippocampal theta oscillations modulate neocortical unit activity and gamma rhythms in rats during exploration and REM sleep. This study suggests a mechanism by which hippocampal theta creates the temporal windows of opportunity within which the multiple local computation in local neocortical circuits (gamma oscillations) can be effectively transferred to the hippocampus. (photo: Pascale Quilichini)
REM sleep is the most mysterious state of the brain. The brain loses its control over muscles of the body and the environmental inputs are ignored. During this self-isolated steady state short bursts of motor outputs occur. We report here that these phasic bursts of REM are characterized by enhanced throroughputs in hippocampal networks. One can only speculate that the compressed neuronal contents of the hippocampus during the phasic events may be responsible for generating dream content of REM. (Image: Flaming-June by FrederickLeighton, Ponce Museum of Art).
Representation of the world and internal states of the brain are usually thought to be expressed in the firing patterns of neurons. However, short-term synaptic dynamics are equally effective in temporally storing information but experimental exploration of this mechanism in the behaving animal has not been possible until recently. High density recordings from local circuits with silicon probes allows access to this important coding mechanism. This paper demonstrates how synaptic weights vary dynamically according to task demands.
Functional MRI is the most important window for probing the human brain. However, the neuronal events correlated with the BOLD signal ('activation maps') are not well understood. Here we discuss why understanding the role of inhibition in brain activity is so critical for the interpretation of such a 'mean field' signal. This review is a synthesis of nearly 3 years of intense discussion among the three of us (GB, KK, MR) with different expertise and perspectives on the brain. I enjoyed our interactions a lot and would like to thank Kai and Marc for being so patient and emphatic teachers. Image: Interneurons are fueled mainly by mitochondrium-dependent (arrows) oxidate phosphorilation.
Abstract depiction of forward and reverse place-cell sequences. Each column represents a window in time, with subthreshold and suprathreshold place-cell activity. Sequences sampled in the middle are played out in full, in forward at the beginning, and in reverse at the end.
The function of hilar mossy cells has remained a mystery. The collection of papers in this volume attempt to address their role.
Gamma power in the CA1 str. radiatum and gamma coherence between CA3 and CA1 regions is consistently highest in the central (choice) arm of a T maze. These findings suggest that recall preferentially engages the CA3-CA1 associational system.
Single CA3 neurons innervate from one half to two thirds of the hippocampus and contact targets in a relatively random manner. The implication is that the CA3-CA1 system represent a single large network module (with the possible separation of the ventral tip).
Single CA3 neurons innervate from one half to two thirds of the hippocampus and contact targets in a relatively random manner. The implication is that the CA3-CA1 system represent a single large network module (with the possible separation of the ventral tip).
In this collaborative research with Peter Somogyi's group, we identified several types of long-range GABAergic interneurons. In a restrictive sense, the term "interneuron" does not really here apply since these cells have as extensive axon arbors as those of the pyramidal cells, spanning regions and various structures. These long-range interneurons may serve as "short cuts" for converting the locally organized interneurons into a "small world network" (Buzsaki et al., TINS 2004). The large caliber and strong myelination of the projection axon of the long-range interneurons, relative to those of pyramidal cells (Figure) allow for an especially fast communication between neuronal assemblies.
Hippocampal place cells are speed-controlled oscillators. They oscillate faster than the "baseline" field theta and produce an interference pattern ("phase precession" - O'Keefe and Recce, 1993).
Large areas of the neocortex and paleocortex reboot their activity several thousand times every night. Each delta wave (or DOWN state) is followed by an organized sequence neuronal recruitment rather than a random pattern of activity. The UP-state initiator neurons may gain their critical role from either their intrinsic properties or by their stronger functional connectivity in the network(s) they are embedded., and, potentially, may reflect experience-dependent effects. The temporal precision of the recruited neurons along the sequence decreases according to a power law.
Large areas of the neocortex and paleocortex reboot their activity several thousand times every night. Each delta wave (or DOWN state) is followed by a period of sustained activity at a frequency of 0.5-1.5 Hz (i.e., the slow oscillation of Steriade et al., 1993). Granule cells of the dentate gyrus are also 'enslaved' to the slow oscillation. Although the firing patterns of CA3 and CA1 region neurons are also biased temporally, the CA3 region can give rise to self-generated patterns also during the DOWN state. Thus, the dentate-CA3 interface is a major functional gate.
The active ingredient in marijuana (tetrahydrocannabinoid or THC) and a synthetic cannabinoid agonist interfere with synchronized activity between neurons in the hippocampus of rats. We recorded from multiple neurons in the hippocampus of rats. Normally neurons in this region form groups that fire action potentials in the time windows of gamma and theta oscillations. But when CB1 agonist was administered, this synchrony was disrupted. The drug did not change the total number of action potentials produced, just their tendency to occur synchronously in these time windows. Animals with less synchronized neural activity under the drug performed less well in a hippocampus-dependent test of memory, suggesting that synchronized neural firing is essential for normal hippocampal function.
Among the most remarkable features of a memory episode is the sequential ordering of composite events and the spatial-temporal relationships that bind them together into a unique episode. Similar to episodic learning of serial events, sequential activation of hippocampal place cells during rat movement on a track is believed to produce a representation that binds past, present, and future locations into a ��spatial episode. Dragoi and Buzsaki show that compressed spatial place cell sequences are represented for several theta cycles by the temporally coordinated activity of hippocampal cell assemblies, with the activity of CA3 preceding the activity of CA1 assemblies by one-half of a theta cycle. The results suggest a role for CA3 in binding CA1 temporal place cell sequences into single episodes. The context and implications of this study and related recent work on hippocampal place cell assemblies are discussed in a Minireview by Suzuki.
Representation of information in the hippocampus occurs at multiple spatio-temoporal scale, symbolized here by the fractal nature of the hippocampus. Superimposed are one-second segments of field potentials from 96-sites recorded simultaneously in the dorsal hippocampus. The behavioral-physiological functions of theta oscillations have been debated over the past 70 years and the current views are summarized in this issue.
Performance of real networks can be simulated by a very large number computational models with various architectures, algorithms and expected differential responses to perturbations. The real challenge then is to identify the right model. Various computational, single cell and slice models have been offered for "phase precession", a potential phase-coding method used by the hippocampus to identify spatio-temporal relationship of sequential events. In order to examine the contribution of the hippocampal networks in this process, we perturbed progression of phase-precession of single place neurons but "switching off" the hippocampus for ~ 100-200 msec and resetting the phase of global theta oscillation. Despite these manipulations, hippocampal activity reorganized instantaneously and phase procession continued. These findings suggest that the hippocampal information is updated by every theta cycle. A "biologically relevant" model of phase-coding should behave similarly.
The importance of long-term synaptic plasticity as a cellular substrate for learning and memory is well established. By contrast, little is known about how learning and memory are regulated by voltage-gated ion channels that integrate this synaptic information. We investigated this question using mice with general or forebrain-restricted knockout of the HCN1 gene, which we find encodes a major component of the hyperpolarization-activated inward current (Ih) and is an important determinant of dendritic integration in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. Surprisingly, deletion of HCN1 from forebrain neurons enhances hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory. Deletion of HCN1 augments the power of theta oscillation in the CA1 region and enhances long-term potentiation (LTP) at the distal cortical inputs to CA1 neurons, where HCN1 is most strongly expressed, but has little effect on synaptic integration or LTP at the more proximal Schaffer collateral inputs. We suggest that HCN1 channels constrain spatial learning and memory by regulating dendritic integration of distal synaptic inputs.
The Local hemodynamics of the cerebral cortex is the basis of modern functional imaging techniques, such as fMRIand PET. Despite the importance of local regulation of the blood flow, capillary level quantification of cerebral blood flow has been limited by the spatial resolution of functional imaging techniques and the depth penetration of conventional optical microscopy. He we use two-photon laser scanning microscopic imaging technique to monitor basal capillary flux in mice as a function of neuronal activity. Our results show that local hyper-synchronized neural activity is associated with increased capillary perfusion in a volume that is significantly smaller than the currently available resolution of the fMRI signal.
How do you know where your nose is? In a more general context, you may ask: how does the sensory representation of the cortex acquire its real-world 3-dimensional representation of the world? Our short answer is that the 3-dimensional geometric layout of the skeletal muscle system is responsible for training the somatosensory system during early development. This stage coincides with the first organized cortical pattern in the form of a spindle-shaped rhythm, fine turning of local connectivity and the emergence of long-range cortico-cortical and cortico-spinal axons. Stochastic, isolated muscle twitches, limb movements and whole body jerks, triggered by autonomous spinal cord circuits in the later stages of pregnancy (human) and first week of life (rat), serve as a supervised algorithm that decreases the infinite possibilities of sensory input combinations to the minimum that will be used in later life. The movement - reafferentation - prolonged cortical activation sequence is among the finest examples of self-organization in nature.
Recording from statistically representative samples of identified neurons from several local areas while minimally interfering with the brain activity is a major goal in systems neuroscience. Many other methods are available for studying the brain but in the end all these indirect observations should be translated back into a common currency - the format of neuronal spike trains - to understand the brain's control of behavior. Wire "tetrodes" and silicon probes can 'hear' pyramial cells as far away as 140um lateral in the cell body. A cylinder with a radius of 140 um contains ~1,000 neurons in the rat cortex, which is the number of theoretically recordable cells by a single electrode. High-density silicon probes and novel mathematical methods in the future may allow us to record all neurons in this volume.
If you have seen Luis Bravo's extravaganza �Forever Tango� you can picture the qualitative essence of synchrony through rhythm: coupling through time by weak links. Instead of brute force, subtle facial expressions, harmonic body movement, light touch and other invisible magic link the partners swing in perfect unison. In the brain, synchrony can also be brought about by force, e.g. by strong excitation through glutamate receptors. Alternatively, it can emerge by phase coupling of oscillatory ensembles through weak links, such as the sparse long-range connections between cortical areas. We speculate that oscillation-based synchrony is an essential part of the brain�s design that serves numerous useful functions.
Separation of principal cells and GABAergic interneurons is of utmost importance for the interpretation of neuronal interactions in the cortex. The cover shows high-density recording of neurons in layer 5 of the somatosensory cortex, using 8-shank, 64-site two-dimensional silicon probes. From their short-term synaptic interaction, units could be identified as excitatory or inhibitory. Large-scale recordings of neuronal activity, determination of their physical location in the cortex and their classification into pyramidal and interneuron classes provide the necessary tools for local circuit analysis. From: Bartho P, Hirase H, Monconduit L, Zugaro M, Harris KD, and Buzsaki G. Characterization of neocortical principal cells and interneurons by network interactions and extracellular features.
The The performance of the brain is constrained by wiring length and maintenance costs. The apparently inverse relationship between number of neurons in the various interneuron classes and the spatial extent of their axon tree suggests a mathematically definable organization, reminiscent of �small-world� or scale-free networks observed in other complex systems. The wiring economy-based classification of cortical inhibitory interneurons is supported by the distinct physiological patterns of class members in the intact brain. We hypothesize that the complex wiring of diverse interneuron classes represents an economic solution for supporting global synchrony and oscillations at multiple time scales with minimum axon length. Image: Detail from Mark Lombardi's now famous pencil drawing: Oliver North, Lake Resources of Panama, and the Iran-Contra Operation, 1984-86). Lombardi's artistic graphs capture the essence of small-world networks, a feature utilized by brain connectivity.
Pericytes in the central nervous system (CNS) are hypothesized to be involved in important circulatory functions, including local blood flow regulation, angiogenesis, immune reaction, and regulation of blood-brain barrier. Despite these putative functions, functional correlates of pericytes in vivo are scarce. We have labeled CNS pericytes using the dextran-conjugated fluorescent calcium indicator Calcium Green I and imaged them in somatosensory cortex of the mouse in vivo. Intracellular calcium concentration in pericytes showed spontaneous surges lasting for several seconds. Furthermore, population bursts of neuronal activity were associated with increased Ca2+ signal in a portion of the pericytes. Selective in vivo labeling of pericytes with functional markers may help reveal their physiological function in neuronal activity-associated regulation of local cerebral blood flow.
Large and long lasting cytosolic calcium surges in astrocytes have been described in cultured cells and acute slice preparations.The mechanisms that give rise to these calcium events have been extensively studied in vitro. However, their existence and functions in the intact brain are unknown. We have topically applied fluo-4 AM on the cerebral cortex of anesthetized rats and imaged cytosolic calcium fluctuation in astrocyte populations of superficial cortical layers in vivo, using 2-photon laser scanning microscopy. Spontaneous [Ca2+]i events in individual astrocytes were similar to those observed in vitro. Coordination of [Ca2+]i events among astrocytes was indicated by the broad cross-correlograms. Increased neuronal discharge was associated with increased astrocytic [Ca2+]i activity in individual cells and a robust coordination of [Ca2+]i signals in neighboring astrocytes. These findings provide indicate potential neuron-glia communication in the intact brain.
This paper presents an eight-channel silicon neural probe with integrated CMOS circuitry designed for simultaneous recording and stimulation in the brain. The probe includes eight on-chip amplifiers that can be individually bypassed, allowing direct access to the iridium sites for electrical stimulation. The on-probe amplifiers have a gain of 38.9dB, an upper cutoff frequency of 9.9kHz, and an input referred noise of 9.2µVrms from 100Hz to 10kHz. The lowfrequency cutoff of the amplifier is tunable to allow the recording of field potentials and minimize stimulus artifact. The on-probe circuitry consumes 672µW from ±1.5V supplies and occupies 2.02mm2 in 3µm features. In-vivo recordings have shown that the preamplifiers can record single-unit activity 1ms after the onset of stimulation on sites as close as 20µm to the stimulating electrode. Further artifact suppression is achievable with precise tuning of the lowfrequency amplifier cutoff.
Large-scale recording of neuronal activity in the hippocampus revealed assembly organization. Prediction of the timing of pyramidal cells spikes is improved using the spike times of peer neurons, over prediction from the animal�s trajectory in space, or a spatially-dependent theta phase modulation. Coordinated variability of spike timing in cell assemblies is assumed to represent a brain-derived (cognitive) process.
Numerous things in nature follow the growth-rule of natural logarithm, e. Such an orderly relationship is also present between the various rhythms of the brain. The e relationship between network oscillations has numerous computational advantages as discussed in this paper.
A short segment of wide band recording from layer V of the somatosensory cortex of the anesthetized rat during down-up-down state transition. 64-site recording with an 8-shank silicon probe. Recordings from separate shanks (8 recording sites each) are distinguished by alternating colors. Background shows detail of the preamplifier circuit integrated in the recording probe.
The cover shows data obtained from two-dimensional recording of gamma oscillation in various hippocampal regions of the behaving rat. The six-shank silicon probe, with 16 recording sites each, is placed in the CA1-CA3 and dentate regions. The derived voltage traces are converted into currents to illustrate large amplitude and coherent gamma oscillatory activity in the CA3-CA1 pyramidal layer. A coronal section of the hippocampus stained with the Gallyas silver method (dark field photograph) is shown in the background.
The physiological roles of neuronal gap junctions in the intact brain are not known. The recent generation of the connexin-36 knockout (Cx36 KO) mouse has offered a unique opportunity to examine this problem. Recent in vitro recordings in Cx36 KO mice suggested that Cx36 gap junction contributes to various oscillatory patterns in the theta (~5-10 Hz) and gamma (~30-80 Hz) frequency ranges, and affects certain aspects of high frequencies (>100 Hz) patterns. However, the relevance of these pharmacologically-induced patterns to the intact brain is not known. We recorded field potentials and unit activity in the CA1 stratum pyramidale of the hippocampus in behaving of wild type (WT) and Cx36 KO mice. Fast-field �ripple� oscillations (140-200 Hz) were present in both WT and KO mice and did not differ significantly in power, intraepisode frequency or probability of occurrence. Thus, fast-field oscillations may either not require electrical synapses or may be mediated by a hitherto unknown class of gap junctions. Theta oscillations, recorded during either wheel running or rapid eye movement sleep, were not different either. However, the power in the gamma frequency band and the magnitude of theta-phase modulation of gamma power were significantly decreased in KO mice compared to WT controls during wheel running. This suggests that Cx36 interneuronal gap junctions selectively contribute to gamma oscillations.
Genetic engineering of the mouse brain allows investigators to address novel hypotheses in vivo. Because of the paucity of information on the network patterns of the mouse hippocampus, we investigated the electrical patterns in the behaving animal using multisite silicon probes and wire tetrodes. Theta (6�9 Hz) and gamma (40�100 Hz) oscillations were present during exploration and rapid eye movement sleep. Gamma power and theta power were comodulated and gamma power varied as a function of the theta cycle. Pyramidal cells and putative interneurons were phase-locked to theta oscillations. During immobility, consummatory behaviors and slow-wave sleep, sharp waves were present in cornu ammonis region CA1 of the hippocampus stratum radiatum associated with 140�200-Hz "ripples" in the pyramidal cell layer and population burst of CA1 neurons. In the hilus, large-amplitude "dentate spikes" occurred in association with increased discharge of hilar neurons. The amplitude of field patterns was larger in the mouse than in the rat, likely reflecting the higher neuron density in a smaller brain. We suggest that the main hippocampal network patterns are mediated by similar pathways and mechanisms in mouse and rat.
Cerebral Cortex Buzsaki et al. Cover Picture: Artistic rendering of the relationship between single spikes (white) and spike bursts under physiological observations. The image imitates a music score generated by the spikes of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Occurrence of bursts (colored patterns) in pyramidal neurons requires previous non-spiking periods. The temporal relationship between single spikes and bursts is hypothesized to regulate the efficacy of synaptic inputs to pyramidal neurons.
Hippocampal pyramidal cell-interneuron spike transmission is reliable and responsible for place modulation of interneuron discharge.
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